Well it certainly could have been a power surge: little power strips or surge protectors have their limits. They're not completely surge-proof or impervious to failure.
Before we start worrying about MOBO and CPU, try a different PSU.
I ended up unplugging and plugging back in pretty much everything and now my PC works fine again. Hoping it was just a hiccup from not being used all week and now it is back and running fine. I'll update this thread if the problem continues next time I boot up my PC a few days from now.