what is thunder bolt , m sata , esata , pci express4, x8 x16 (difference)
Thunderbolt is a mixture of a display port and the speed of a pci slot. you can connect devices like a monitor(with a display port) or a storage device. One thunderbolt port can connect upto 7 devices. Max speed of thunderbolt is 10Gbps.
Don't know much about m Sata and e Sata.
Pcie has a specific bandwidth. And the slot (x8, x16) are like the multipliers of the CPU blck. So if you have a x8 slot the bandwidth = pcie bandwidth x 8, pcie x16 slot bandwidth = pcie bandwidth x 16 and so on.
X8 slots have half the number of lanes of a x16 slot. Although the slots look the same and are of same size. You can see that there are low number of lanes(pins) at a closer inspection.
I didn't specify a pcie bandwidth because the different version of pcie have different bandwidth.