Can you connect to the router wirelessly with another wireless device? Can you verify that the router's wireless is ON? (Check the web interface.)
When you go to adapter settings (Start->Control Panel->Network and Internet->Network and Sharing Center->Change adapter settings (from the text menu on the left), can you identify your wireless adapter, alongside with the wired one? If you can see it, you can right click, and disable, then enable it again, see if this changes anything.