I recently purchased a new router that supports Gigabit connections. there are 4 ports on the device and there is no detintion between standard and gigabit so I am assuming all 4 ports are hi speed. The router plugs into a wall jack with a cat5 cable connecting it to a wall jack in the next room, the desktop is plugged into the corresponding wall jack. When I check the status of my connection it is listed as 100mbs. Is the cat 5 my bottle neck? If so what type of cable do I need to get the full speed of the router?
Your router is gigabit, so all four LAN ports will be gigabit. Could be the cable, the computer adapter, and any other hardware in line if you have any (like switches). Usually short runs of CAT5 are okay, so I would check the network adapter first.
the adapter checks out, I just upgraded the motherboard in August and the adapter is rated for gigabit. I made sure I had the latest drivers. there are no other hubs or switches between the desktop and the router. the only suspect is the cable itself but I cant find documentation that states gigabit requiring a different type of cable. As for the run of cat5, there is perhaps 24' between the router and the desktop.
CAT5 will work with gigabit, although 5e or 6 is preferred due to lower crosstalk, but unless the cable is damaged or runs parallel in the wall with a power line for some length it should not be a problem. It is easy enough to test by using a different single patch cable from computer to router.
I would run LANSpeedTest over the network just to check and see what actual speeds you are getting.