Let me preface by saying I've never had to use wireless before, so this may not be as odd as I think. Currently my computer is in a location where I have to have a wireless adapter for internet access. Lately, and with somewhat increasing frequency, I'm booted off the network. The wireless indicator (Windows 8) starts with the disconnected message, then no networks available, then disconnected, then back to connected. This is only a real pain when I'm trying to play games, which is somewhat often.
What troubles me is the loss of power to the hardware. My keyboard, mouse, and tablet all become unresponsive momentarily during the change from no networks available to disconnected. It's never more than a second or two, but it is alarming.
Hardware wise we have a Cisco Linksys E3000, and I've tried two adapters: a Linksys USB adapter and currently a TP-Link TL-WN722N connected to the front USB port. Both gave me the same issue, but the current one at least reconnects itself. I'm perhaps 30-40 feet from the router, as well.
Here are my computer's specs, if that would be helpful:
I don't think that the diconnections are causing hardware issue, but possibly the other way around.
Check out the power management settings for the wireless adapter, and uncheck the "Allow the computer to turn off this device to save power". It may be your system wrongly powering down the adapter.