it's a tough call.
First, once you install the OS onto a hard drive, it uses the setup files for that particular motherboard, so sometimes when moving a hard drive with an OS on it to another motherboard, it won't work because it's already loaded to a different BIOS. Other times it will work but will have issues. It usually helps if you're moving the hard drive to the same chipset /brand of motherboard.
In this particular case, you are crossing platform boundries, it will likely not work, maybe it will work if you are switching to the same motherboard brand (like ASUS P35 to ASUS H55)
My recommendation is to just call Microsoft and explain the situation to them and they will let you use the retail license version on another hard drive/motherboard once it is de-activated on the current one.