The signal from the turntable cartridge is pretty tiny and even if it survives a long journey there may be equalisation effects and interference issues.
Solution is probably to buy a turntable cartridge pre-amp ( these are fairly common accessories as many new receivers don't bother with a phono input) and feed that into the receiver's line input (e.g. tape input).
To hook the pre-amp up to the receiver you'll need a stereo screened lead.
Speaker wire isn't screened so will produce a strong hum.