MEMORY FAQ

Pretty much finished...

who can I send it to?

INDEX:
1. KEY TERMS
2. MEMORY MODULE FORM FACTORS
3. MEMORY MODULE TECHNOLOGY
4. RAM TECHNOLOGY
5. MEMORY MODULE IDENTIFICATION
6. MEMORY CHIP IDENTIFICATION
7. MEMORY MODULE CLASSES
8. MEMORY CHIP CLASSES
9. TABLE OF STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS (WITH LATENCY)
10. BEFORE YOU PURCHASE
11. INSTALLING MEMORY
12. TROUBLESHOOTING
13. GENERAL QUESTIONS
14. VIRTUAL MEMORY
15. MANUFACTURERS
16. BROKERS
17. COUNTERFEIT MEMORY
18. RAM GUIDES


Any further suggestions?

<font color=blue>******
<font color=green>"My Memory is not working today"
<font color=blue>AIM SoCaliCrowley
39 answers Last reply
More about memory
  1. Is it WUSY's Golden Rule?

    Something along the lines...
    The recommended minimum page file size is about 1.5 times the amount of RAM in your system, and the maximum recommended is about 3 times.

    <b>EDIT:</b>
    About overclocking..
    No, I did not include an overclocking section in this FAQ.
    Just basic FAQ.. I think the topic of overclocking is better answered in the message forums.


    <font color=blue>******
    <font color=green>"My Memory is not working today"
    <font color=blue>AIM SoCaliCrowley<P ID="edit"><FONT SIZE=-1><EM>Edited by BrentUnitedMem on 08/24/05 04:04 PM.</EM></FONT></P>
  2. I have gone into some details about optimizing the Page File, but I don't want people to screw up their computers by doing something they shouldn't.

    One reason why I have decided not to focus too much on overclocking.

    However, scattered in the FAQ, there are sections that help understand the latency and how to change it, etc..

    <font color=blue>******
    <font color=green>"My Memory is not working today"
    <font color=blue>AIM SoCaliCrowley
  3. come to think of it...

    I'll add a section that talks about overclocking basics.

    WUSY'S GOLDEN RULE OF OVERCLOCKING !

    What else ???..+..?

    <font color=blue>******
    <font color=green>"My Memory is not working today"
    <font color=blue>AIM SoCaliCrowley
  4. Timing defenitions. What they relate to? Difference between 1T and 2T command rates?

    That would be my suggestion
  5. send it to me and I will make sure Fredi makes it a sticky.

    ASUS P5WD2 Premium
    Intel 3.73 EE @ 5.6Ghz
    XMS2 DDR2 @ 1180Mhz

    <A HREF="http://valid.x86-secret.com/records.php?PHPSESSID=792e8f49d5d9b8a4d1ad6f40ca029756" target="_new">#2 CPUZ</A>
    SuperPI 25secs
  6. Quote:

    Timing defenitions. What they relate to? Difference between 1T and 2T command rates?

    Got it !

    **token is passed to MOZZ.

    <font color=blue>******
    <font color=green>"My Memory is not working today"
    <font color=blue>AIM SoCaliCrowley
  7. Brent - THANK YOU! :cool: :smile: The time and effort you put into this FAQ is greatly appreciated by me and everyone else here at THGC!

    Now if we can just get the people asking questions to actually READ it.... :eek:

    __________________________________________________
    <font color=red>You're a boil on the arse of progress - don't make me squeeze you!</font color=red>
  8. Yup good work. You've been a very valuable asset in the memory section!

    Two thumbs up!

    And I must confess, I cant wait to yell: READ THE FAQ!!!! =)

    Asus P4P800DX, P4C 2.6ghz@3.25ghz, 2X512 OCZ PC4000 3-4-4-8, MSI 6800Ultra stock, 2X30gig Raid0<P ID="edit"><FONT SIZE=-1><EM>Edited by labbbby on 08/25/05 10:30 AM.</EM></FONT></P>
  9. ...because if Brent PM'd Fredi it wouldn't be made a sticky ??? :tongue:

    OnTopic: Nice going Brent. :lol:

    _____________________
    <A HREF="http://snipurl.com/fxwr" target="_new">Welcome to the House of Horrors, welcome to the House of a 1000 Corpses</A>
  10. From what I hear, I dont think that he replies to very many people. I think me and you are the best at getting people banned :lol:

    ASUS P5WD2 Premium
    Intel 3.73 EE @ 5.6Ghz
    XMS2 DDR2 @ 1180Mhz

    <A HREF="http://valid.x86-secret.com/records.php?PHPSESSID=792e8f49d5d9b8a4d1ad6f40ca029756" target="_new">#2 CPUZ</A>
    SuperPI 25secs
  11. It looks really good to me Brent!

    ASUS P5WD2 Premium
    Intel 3.73 EE @ 5.6Ghz
    XMS2 DDR2 @ 1180Mhz

    <A HREF="http://valid.x86-secret.com/records.php?PHPSESSID=792e8f49d5d9b8a4d1ad6f40ca029756" target="_new">#2 CPUZ</A>
    SuperPI 25secs
  12. Shhhhh! You make us look out to be real bad asses! :lol:

    _____________________
    <A HREF="http://snipurl.com/fxwr" target="_new">Welcome to the House of Horrors, welcome to the House of a 1000 Corpses</A>
  13. more like brown noser :wink:

    muhaha

    Asus P4P800DX, P4C 2.6ghz@3.25ghz, 2X512 OCZ PC4000 3-4-4-8, MSI 6800Ultra stock, 2X30gig Raid0
  14. Temp Ban.

    _____________________
    <A HREF="http://snipurl.com/fxwr" target="_new">Welcome to the House of Horrors, welcome to the House of a 1000 Corpses</A>
  15. Please add your comments..

    <b>MEMORY OVERCLOCKING 101</b>
    __________________________________________________

    Overclocking is the art of running a processor, memory, or video card at a speed faster than the officially marked speed by using a higher clock multiplier, faster bus speed, or higher voltage setting. Because overclocking can significantly lower the life of a device, it is generally not endorsed by the device manufacturers. All in all, there is no good overclocking safeguard- precautionary measures should be taken during an overclocking experiment. If the possibility of damaging your equipment is of significant concern, then overclocking is not recommended.

    In any case, overclocking seems to be a permanent fad, with many novice and neophyte overclockers here to stay, pushing their computer systems to the limit. Since overclockers act as beta-testers for new electronic equipment, to a certain extent the hardware community needs expert overclockers.

    Keep in mind that not all motherboards allow flexible change of the parameters below.

    <b>DISCUSSION OF MEMORY OVERCLOCKING PARAMETERS</b>
    <i>BUS SPEED</i>
    Both the CPU and memory are synchronized based on the BUS SPEED. This means that any changes in BUS SPEED will affect both the CPU FREQUENCY and the MEMORY FREQUENCY. BUS SPEED is not the same thing as FSB (Front Side Bus); the FSB is derived from the BUS SPEED, typically in multiples of 1, 2 (double pumped FSB), or 4 (quad pumped FSB).

    For SDRAM memory, the effective speed of the memory is the same as the BUS SPEED.

    For DDR memory, the effective speed of the memory is double the BUS SPEED

    For DDR2 memory, the effective speed of the memory is quadruple the BUS SPEED.

    <i>CPU MULTIPLIER</i>
    The effective frequency of the CPU is equal to the following:

    CPU Frequency = [BUS SPEED] x [CPU MULTIPLIER]

    <i>MEMORY VOLTAGE</i>
    When you overclock the memory, sometimes you will need to increase the voltage. Voltage is responsible for providing the “juice” that is required to run memory components at their intended overclocked speed. Voltage should be increased in one-tenth steps at a time. Increasing from 2.5 volts to 2.6 volts is one incremental step in voltage overclocking. Too much voltage and you will fry the electronic device. Normally, your system will not load with unsafe settings, but people continue to find ways to work around these safeguards.

    Keep in mind the lower the specified voltage of a device the more sensitive the device is to the change in voltage. DDR2 has a specified voltage of 1.8 volts and is therefore more sensitive to a change in voltage than its DDR counterpart, which is specified at 2.5 volts.

    <i>MEMORY LATENCY</i>
    Memory latency is the most difficult subject of memory overclocking. Please refer to section ‘General Questions’ on how memory access works.

    There is no such thing as zero latency, because after all there are always physical and structural delays introduced into all electronic devices. Furthermore, one or more devices talking together, such as two or more memory modules working in tandem, add a certain amount of physical and structural delay. This is to say that the memory working in tandem is not guaranteed to work at the latency of the best module, even if all modules are rated to work at the same latency.

    A heed of warning:
    Many computer applications are latency driven; changing the latency can have undesirable affects on particular applications resulting in crashes, or in more extreme cases data corruption. Video games, for example, work well with low latency memory, whereas professional applications such as applications centered on accounting, audio and/or video do not like low latency modules as much.

    The advice of this FAQ is: Never change a module’s latency below its rated value unless you are absolutely sure of what you are doing. Ultimately, the motherboard’s BIOS can automatically detect the optimal latency based on the information stored in the SBD chip on the memory module- in the BIOS program you will find an ‘Auto’ setting for the memory’s SBD chip. If you change this setting to ‘manual’ some motherboards will allow you to change the latency settings.

    <b>MEMORY OVERCLOCKING STEPS</b>

    <i>Determine the CPU frequency first</i>
    Changing the core speed of the memory affects the CPU frequency, so you will need to first figure out what speed you want to run the CPU, and make changes to the BUS SPEED accordingly.

    In the BIOS, you will find a section where you can change the BUS FREQEUNCY/SPEED and MULTIPLIER. Keep in mind the following equation:

    CPU FREQUENCY = [BUS SPEED] x [MULTIPLIER]

    You’ll want to set the bus speed and multiplier to the desired value. If you set it too high, your system may not boot and you will have to clear the CMOS chip.

    For an example, if you have an AMD Athlon XP 2500+ processor that has a CPU frequency of 1.82GHz clock, the proper settings for the BIOS would be a BUS SPEED of 166MHz and a MULTIPLIER of 11.

    1.82GHz = [166MHz] x [11]

    With proper cooling you may be able to change these setting towards a higher CPU frequency. Start with a lower BUS SPEED, and increase the multiplier in small incremental steps. A successful overclock should load windows and desired applications without any problems. 10-15% above the specified frequency is a decent overclock.

    Take note of the CPU FREQUENCY.

    If you need to, you can reset changes to the BIOS by pulling the CMOS jumper pin located on the motherboard. Consult the motherboards documentation for the location of the CMOS pins and how to reset the changes.


    <i>Increase the BUS SPEED</i>
    Now that you have an idea of the CPU Frequency you can begin to overclock the memory. Keep in mind that your CPU Frequency is now fixed; the only values left to change are the BUS SPEED and MULTIPLIER.

    As you increase the BUS SPEED, you will need to lower the MULTIPLIER as to keep the CPU FREQUENCY fixed.

    An increase of 33 MHz is a typical incremental step for the BUS SPEED. If you go to high, you system will not boot- you will need to reset the BIOS settings by clear the CMOS chip.

    A BUS SPEED of 200MHz equals DDR400 memory speed.
    A BUS SPEED of 166Mhz equals DDR333 memory speed.
    And so on.

    Sometimes you may need to increase the voltage to the memory in order for the memory to handle the overclock. 20-30% is a decent memory overclock.


    <font color=blue>******
    <font color=green>"My Memory is not working today"
    <font color=blue>AIM SoCaliCrowley
  16. Quote:
    For DDR2 memory, the effective speed of the memory is quadruple the BUS SPEED.

    Are you sure? I thought DDR2 internally worked at half bus speed, but externally DDR & DDR2 are DDR (after all, what is DDR and acronym for?)
    Quote:
    information stored in the SBD chip on the memory module

    Is this a typo? I thought it was S<b>P</b>D?

    Might not belong in the memory overclocking guide, but most mobos now support bus speed/memory speed ratio adjustments (1:1, 5:4, 2:3, etc. - though some are shown in BIOS as a memory clock and you get to do the ratio yourself)

    Otherwise looks good and informative.

    Mike.


    <font color=blue>Outside of a dog, a book is man's best friend. Inside the dog its too dark to read.
    -- Groucho Marx</font color=blue>
  17. Quote:
    It's good enough for general purpose.

    I sence: Wusy's Overclocking 401 section. haha


    <font color=blue>******
    <font color=green>"My Memory is not working today"
    <font color=blue>AIM SoCaliCrowley
  18. Yes you are correct.

    The effective speed of DDR2 is still twice the core speed.

    What was I thinking? haha

    yes, it's SPD.

    <font color=blue>******
    <font color=green>"My Memory is not working today"
    <font color=blue>AIM SoCaliCrowley
  19. Nice beginning Brent, I'm sure I'm going to fidn it very useful.

    Only comment I have about it right now is your CPU frequency section. My understanding is that most of the CPUs out there now either have their multiplier completely locked or Upper bounded. Isn't the Athlon FX line the only ones that left he multipliers completely open? Just thinking that you may want to mention that.
  20. Quote:
    Shhhhh! You make us look out to be real bad asses!

    But we are :lol:

    ASUS P5WD2 Premium
    Intel 3.73 EE @ 5.6Ghz
    XMS2 DDR2 @ 1180Mhz

    <A HREF="http://valid.x86-secret.com/records.php?PHPSESSID=792e8f49d5d9b8a4d1ad6f40ca029756" target="_new">#2 CPUZ</A>
    SuperPI 25secs
  21. Its one of the best faqs here at THGC. Its full of info that lots of people other than noobs will find to be very informative. Brent spent alot of time and effort on this and your ready to start changing it up. I think he has the situation under control. To say that its only for total beginners is almost an insult dont you think?

    ASUS P5WD2 Premium
    Intel 3.73 EE @ 5.6Ghz
    XMS2 DDR2 @ 1180Mhz

    <A HREF="http://valid.x86-secret.com/records.php?PHPSESSID=792e8f49d5d9b8a4d1ad6f40ca029756" target="_new">#2 CPUZ</A>
    SuperPI 25secs
  22. I think you should mention memory dividers in overclocking 101. They way it is written at the moment suggests that the memory HAS to be run syncronously with the bus speed.
  23. I read the early draft and will read the final product. Seems to me that you just read a portion of it...

    __________________________________________________
    <font color=red>You're a boil on the arse of progress - don't make me squeeze you!</font color=red>
  24. Real good stuff. I agree with the Multiplier and the memory divider both play a important role in OCing.

    Explaining the Multiplier Locked wwould'nt be to complicated. Stating the FX as the example.
    Somethign like, as you can see, raising the multiplier is a really easy way of overclocking your CPU without adding any stress on any other parts. Thats why manufacturer DONT allow you to raise the multiplier upwards because it would take seconds to turn a( lets say 3000+ into a 3200+). Thats why you have to pay a significant premium with AMD chips(aka FX) and it cant be done with Intel's chip...

    I dont think that would confuse the n00bs and the more educated might get something out of it!

    Asus P4P800DX, P4C 2.6ghz@3.25ghz, 2X512 OCZ PC4000 3-4-4-8, MSI 6800Ultra stock, 2X30gig Raid0
  25. I mention the multipliers because we all konw that a noob will read that, see their multiplier value in the BIOS, then will come back here and ask over and over again why they can't increase the multiplier on their chip like the guide says to.
  26. It was not my plan to enduldge too deeply into overclocking because it's really not a subject for a general memory FAQ. Besides, I never encourage people to overclock significantly. Better left for the chasms of the THG forum.

    Someone should write an Overclocking 401 sticky.

    About the multiplier.. I mentioned that not all motherboards allow such flexible change.

    I also added an additional section going into some details regarding the FSB:DRAM ratio:
    _________________________________________________
    <i>Be aware of the FSB:DRAM ratio</i>
    On Intel based systems there are two data buses between the CPU and memory. The FSB (Front Side Bus) connects the CPU to the memory controller. The memory controller in turn connects to the memory modules via the memory bus. Remember, the FSB is derived from the BUS SPEED. Thus, this ratio is really a comparison of the BUS SPEED with the core memory speed.

    Since each bus is only as strong as the weaker of the two, it is best to synchronize both buses together, namely with an FSB:DRAM ratio of 1:1. If your system cannot achieve 1:1, then it’s best to come close.

    You can easily find this ratio using CPU-Z (from www.cpuid.com) under the memory section. Or you can calculate it yourself. Below are some examples:

    A bus speed of 200MHz is on par 1:1 with a DDR-400 module running at 200MHz.

    A bus speed of 133MHz is on par 3:2 with a DDR-400 module running at 200Mhz.

    A bus speed of 166MHz is on par 6:5 with a DDR-400 module running at 200MHz.

    Note: a quad-pumped 800MHz FSB has a bus speed of 200Mhz!

    The architecture for AMD systems is different; the Memory controller is normally inside the CPU. Because of this AMD uses a different naming convention for the memory bus which connects the memory modules directly to the CPU: MT/s or MHz Hyper Transport.


    <font color=blue>******
    <font color=green>"My Memory is not working today"
    <font color=blue>AIM SoCaliCrowley
  27. Nice! Oh and no performance penalities for AMD when not running 1:1!


    Asus P4P800DX, P4C 2.6ghz@3.25ghz, 2X512 OCZ PC4000 3-4-4-8, MSI 6800Ultra stock, 2X30gig Raid0
  28. Hopefully that's intuitive. =)

    <font color=blue>******
    <font color=green>"My Memory is not working today"
    <font color=blue>AIM SoCaliCrowley
  29. I still feel you are over-complicating the issue. You could simply say that on older systems the memory bus had to be run syncronously with the FSB. But modern motherboards allow for memory dividers which run the memory at a ratio of the FSB. For example a 3/4 memory/FSB ratio on a 200Mhz FSB board will run the memory at 150Mhz.

    <P ID="edit"><FONT SIZE=-1><EM>Edited by jammydodger on 08/27/05 11:41 AM.</EM></FONT></P>
  30. Granted, but i think brents explanation is far too complicated for a n00b.
  31. I thank everyone for their replies, however, it is my final decision to leave the OVERCLOCKING section out of the memory FAQ.

    It seems people are a bit more sensitive to overclocking issues on an enthusiast board. And I am still of the opinion that it is not a subject for a neophyte or for an FAQ specific to memory.

    I strongly think there needs to be an FAQ dedicated to Overclocking. Any takers?

    I wish for everyone to understand my reason.

    <font color=blue>******
    <font color=green>"My Memory is not working today"
    <font color=blue>AIM SoCaliCrowley
  32. Good choice. Overclocking shouldn't be covered in a Mem FAQ

    _____________________
    <A HREF="http://snipurl.com/fxwr" target="_new">Welcome to the House of Horrors, welcome to the House of a 1000 Corpses</A>
  33. Quote:
    But we are


    So true! But they shouldn't know that!

    Wanna do drugs? :evil:

    _____________________
    <A HREF="http://snipurl.com/fxwr" target="_new">Welcome to the House of Horrors, welcome to the House of a 1000 Corpses</A>
  34. So the Memory FAQ that was sent to MOZZ is the final copy.

    Let me know if there is anything else.

    <font color=blue>******
    <font color=green>"My Memory is not working today"
    <font color=blue>AIM SoCaliCrowley
  35. How would I know, I haven't seen it.

    _____________________
    <A HREF="http://snipurl.com/fxwr" target="_new">Welcome to the House of Horrors, welcome to the House of a 1000 Corpses</A>
  36. I gave it to mozz to pass it along...

    Is there something else that needs to be done to get it posted?


    <font color=blue>******
    <font color=green>"My Memory is not working today"
    <font color=blue>AIM SoCaliCrowley
  37. As said before, PM "Fredi" and request a stick to be made - send the FAQ as well.

    _____________________
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    (='.'=)<A HREF="http://snipurl.com/fxwr" target="_new">Welcome to the House of Horrors, welcome to the House of a 1000 Corpses</A>
    (")_(")
  38. What I do is this:

    Create a logical partition of say 2-3 GBs. Remove all pagefiles from your platter. Set the page file in the new dedicated partition (I name the volume "pagefile"). And set it to static at 2 GB or a little under your max partition size to avoid "running out of space" messages. Insta-Defrag method, if you must: Switch the page to another drive, reboot, switch it back to the pagefile partition, reboot, done.
  39. *sniggers*

    (\__/)
    (='.'=) <A HREF="http://snipurl.com/fxwr" target="_new">Welcome to the House of Horrors, welcome to the House of a 1000 Corpses</A>
    (")_(")
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