Obviously a turntable. Any decent model will do. I would avoid those ones which have USB as they are generally quite poor quality. I use a Technics SL1200 series direct drive in preference to my better sounding belt drive model because it has near instant stop and start .
An integrated amplifier or preamp with a phono cartridge input.
Either a CD recorder or a computer with sound circuitry and a copy of Audacity.
CD recorders generally cost $300 or so and use special discs. The discs are actually just the same as computer writable CD-R with some code embedded -- but they cost twice as much.
You obviously already have a computer, it probably has sound circuitry with a line level input, it probably has a CD/DVD writer Audacity is a free download analogue to digital recording program.
That's it -- connecting it up and operation is mainly commonsense. The only issues I have with Audacity is the input volume control can be a bit tricky -- explore Windows Sound menus for the answer.