You said bulb, so I'm assuming you have some kind of front projector or rear projection (DLP, LCoS, etc...) TV.
The quick answer is no, the non-ground wouldn't cause your bulb to pop.
The more lengthy answer is: Although this wouldn't have anything to do with your bulb, a non-grounded dish and incoming service (and this includes CATV as well) can cause many other problems in your setup.
1) This can include the wiring burning up inside your home if it is ever struck by lighting. Huge saftey reason the NEC made it law to be grounded.
2) Ground loops can form if not grounded or grounded properly. This can cause hum in audio, loss of data on digital connections, etc...
3) Lastly. It can cause HDMI inputs to fry on video displays (although rare). DirecTV actually has a bulletin out for installers to test the ground from TV chassis to receiver, just for that HDMI issue and the potential to damage a customers TV. Have never seen a DirecTV installer do it yet however lol