System Recovery Partition: It comes installed on your hard disk in a hidden partition. It can re-install Windows just as it was on the day it was shipped from the factory. It will not save any of your personal files.
System Recovery Disc (rescue disk): A bootable CD or DVD you created when your laptop first arrived. It is not a backup. It's a good idea to create a current rescue disk every so often, especially after major OS updates. You might be able to repair a problem without losing your files. How to create a system repair rescue recovery disc
A backup is not a clean install of Windows.
A backup is not any 'one thing'. It is what ever you decided to backup. Personal files, pictures, documents and music, for example.
You can always reload Windows and re-install your programs.