Theoretically, it would be possible, but not probable. You are more likely to track down the cell phones, with police help, than you are the notebook.
To effectively track the notebook, you would need the MAC address (at a minimum) and a good idea of where to look for the notebook with some sniffer software.
Scanning the entire Internet certainly isn't feasible. Talk to the police and see what they can do. Many departments now have some pretty advanced capabilities when it comes to dealing with tech crimes.
When you buy replacements, you might like to protect them with Smart Water - a chemical made to be unique to your equipment and which cannot be removed. Unfortunately though, the goods still have to be recovered before they can be traced back to you but the visible stickers saying the property is marked might act as a deterrent.