since you just upgraded, another possible option would be to go with a larger physical size monitor in 1080p. a 24" monitor will likely be large enough for you to comfortably use. a 26" to 30" will likely give you a similar actual size for text without adjustments.
objects on the 720p (larger icons) and 1080p (smaller icons) screens are both the same size since they are measured in pixels. ie, a font height of 15px will be smaller on a higher definition screen then on a lower definition screen.
on office documents you will need to zoom in using the controls. on IM programs you will need to increase text size. in games you will need to make the interface larger. on the web you will need to increase text size. generally this can be quite irritating and it is highly suggested to instead get a monitor of a resolution and physical size which best accomodates your vision. see my comments in the first paragraph.