Thermal Protection is it all that?

I've Read alot about the AMD vs Intel Cpu Battles! And one of the biggest arguments from the Intel side is no thermal protection. I would like to comment on this, there are 2 boards that I know of that will shutdown the system from the bios when the cpu reaches a certain temp. The Abit boards and my Current MSI K7T Turbo R. So if more manufactures enable this in there bios would we really need the thermal protection in the CPU?
Please keep reply to this topic on this topic. I don't want to hear about VIA!
Note: for anyone using the same board as I, u need the new 2.6 bios for that option previous ones didn't have it.
60 answers Last reply
More about thermal protection that
  1. I actually <A HREF="http://forumz.tomshardware.com/modules.php?name=Forums&file=faq&notfound=1&code=1" target="_new">posted</A>on this a while back...there's other software besides the BIOS that can take care of shutting down your system for you under overheat conditions.

    Kelledin

    bash-2.04$ kill -9 1
    init: Just what do you think you're doing, Dave?
  2. I usually figure 'thermal protection' starts with reading a thermodynamics book (fluids, then moving on to materials).

    But I'm just weird that way....
  3. Unfortunately, by the time the heat from the CPU reaches the temperature sensors over on the motherboard, an Athlon with a broken or mismounted heatsink/fan has usually fried. The excessive heat can kill one of these CPUs in less than 5 seconds from power-up. It will take quite a bit longer than that for the ambient case temperature to reach critical temperatures where the motherboard sensor would notice, and then for the motherboard to shut down the CPU. Thermal protection within the actual CPU is critical to protecting your investment from such accidents.

    -Raystonn

    = The views stated herein are my personal views, and not necessarily the views of my employer. =
  4. This is very true. Yes for AMD to do well in the business sector they will need heat protection. Companies will not stand for burnt cpu's because a fan died.

    The bios thing and the programs can work if your cpu doesn't go over 40*C under full load. So tell it at 45*C Kill Power...HOPEFULLY it won't fry the cpu in 5 to 10 seconds. But then again it might.


    96.3 % of Statistics are made up.
  5. It's unfortunate that AMD doesnt have any type of heat protection for their CPU's. How dumb is that? CPU's are running at 1.3Ghz consuming nearly 70 watts of power and no means of protecting them against overheating.. duh. Has AMD ever said why there isnt thermal protection on their cpu's.. or do they even care?


    (A)bort, (R)etry, (G)et a beer?
  6. In other words, the onboard temp sensor won't necessarily save you from <i>user error.</i> I would hardly consider that critical myself...

    I would consider it rather difficult to miss a heatsink that was broken badly enough to not offer some measure of protection. Mismounting a heatsink is a pitfall though, especially as most heatsinks can physically go on two ways (only one of which is actually proper).

    HSFs with a recessed contact area are a pitfall too, especially if you're using a copper shim--that can keep the contact area suspended off the CPU core. Orbs are one such HSF.

    If a fan dies, a T-bird with a properly installed heatsink lasts about an hour before malfunction, according to ASUS.

    Kelledin

    bash-2.04$ kill -9 1
    init: Just what do you think you're doing, Dave?
  7. The main thing isn't to keep your cpu from getting fried, but the fact that your computer was shut down. I'd rather have a computer that didn't ever shut down randomly.
  8. I would love for some Intel supporter take off there heatsink on there beloved P4, start up their computer and see if the thermal protection kicks in before any damage is done. Any takers?


    <font color=red>There are only 2 types of hard drives. Ones that have crashed and ones that are about to.</font color=red>
  9. I don’t think you’ll find anybody on this forum that owns a P4 (maybe fugger does). I sure the hell don’t, Im waiting for Northwood. Any way, I would like to see two computers side by side, one Athlon the other a P4. Turn them both on without heatsinks or fans.. i bet the P4 would boot into windows while the Athlon sizzles like a strip of bacon in 5 seconds or less.


    (A)bort, (R)etry, (G)et a beer?
  10. I read the P4 uses almost the same watts as an Athlon. If the P4 didn’t shut down immediately it will fry just like an AMD long before windows pops up.

    <font color=red>There are only 2 types of hard drives. Ones that have crashed and ones that are about to.</font color=red>
  11. Athlon 1.3Ghz
    1.75v
    95 C Max Temp (No Thermal Protection)
    73 Watts Power Consumption

    Pentium 4 1.3Ghz
    1.7 v
    70 C Max (Thermal protection)
    48.9 Watts Power Consumption

    The Pentium 4 consumes far less power then the less efficient Athlon, especially considering that the Pentium 4 has many more transistors. It even looks worse for AMD when we compare the power output of the 1Ghz Athlon and 1Ghz Pentium III.

    Athlon 1Ghz
    1.75v
    95 C Max Temp (No Thermal Protection)
    <b>50.75</b> Watts Power Consumption

    Pentium III 1Ghz
    1.7 v
    70 C Max Temp (Thermal protection)
    <b>26.1</b> Watts Power Consumption
    <P ID="edit"><FONT SIZE=-1><EM>Edited by Everett6 on 05/11/01 10:00 PM.</EM></FONT></P>
  12. It takes alot of power to kick intel's A$$.

    ~Matisaro~
    "Friends don't let friends buy Pentiums"
  13. I am not entirely sure I am correct on this but here goes anyway.

    The P4 has some kind of throttle back of speed by reducing power and therefore heat. If a P4 is run hard for an extened period of time it is forced to slow down to manage its temperature dynamically.

    The Palomino or Athlon 4 has power management features which may well perform in the same way (I guess we find out on Monday).

    We really are reaching the limit of 0.18u speeds and I guess this is just using some smarts to squeeze out that extra bit of performace. I do however worry about manufacturers putting in cheap cooling systems on highend machines with the consumer not knowing that they are only ever running there processor at half speed.

    All I can say is bring on Northwood & Thoroughbred.

    <font color=blue> The Revolution starts here... as soon as I finish my coffee </font color=blue> :eek:
  14. Yes, we all want to see what the Palomino will do, or how it will fare up against the P4, and later on the Northwood.
    I agree it was stupid of AMD to not have included some kind of Thermal Protection ON the CPU, but that doesnt mean its a bad CPU.
    Question, doesnt the ASUS Probe software include some kind of Software Coolign feature which will automatically shut down the computer if it reaches a certain SET temperature ?!?!?

    Burn MF, BURN!!!
  15. From <A HREF="http://www.inqst.com/articles/p4bandwidth/p4bandwidthmain.htm" target="_new">http://www.inqst.com/articles/p4bandwidth/p4bandwidthmain.htm</A>
    <font color=green>"Update: Intel’s Thermal Design Guide has revealed that the absolute maximum power dissipation of the 1.5GHz P4 is actually 72.9 watts. This is 33% higher than the published system design specification, and essentially identical to the 1.33 GHz Athlon. If power dissipation is sustained at a level higher than 54.7 watts thermal overload can occur. In order to deal with this, a mechanism called thermal throttling is used. If performance critical applications drive the CPU above a predetermined temperature, the CPU is halted with a 50% duty cycle (alternating 2 microseconds on; 2 microseconds off) until it cools down. This effectively turns your 1.5GHz processor into a 750MHz processor – just at the moment you demand peak performance. On the other hand, you will probably still be able to check your email at 1.5GHz. This scheme is described on page 23 of Intel’s P4 Thermal Design Guide.

    Commentary is already floating around the web that perhaps Intel feels guilty about selling 750MHz CPUs in 1.5GHz clothing, and thus has decided to cut the price by 50% as well."</font color=green>

    72.9 watts! That’s just the P4 1.5 gig, what about the 1.7? Which is what you need to compete with an AMD 1.3 gig. The fact is I don’t care if the CPU’s use 200+ watts of power. I also don’t care how hot they run as long as they run stable (which mine dose). I just bugs me when people say the P4 uses much less power then an Athlon which is untrue.

    Thx & Cya


    <font color=red>There are only 2 types of hard drives. Ones that have crashed and ones that are about to.</font color=red>
  16. I've read that article before. It doesnt say that the P4 runs at 72.9 watts all the time. It says that the P4 <b>can</b> reach those temps if needed (like if the HS fan dies), when actually the P4 1.3Ghz runs at a more effecient 50 watts 99.9% of the time.


    (A)bort, (R)etry, (G)et a beer?
  17. No, not all the time, just when you use it. Jeeze - my cpus run 100% 24x7, I don't care if it is an Intel or AMD cpu - it still runs, and they do run hot.

    -* This Space For Rent *-
    email for application details
  18. I don't think companies give a rat's a$$ about a cpu fan or dead cpus.

    If a pc dies, it gets sent out on warranty or maintenace. Why it spotted working is of no concern. The % of pcs that would stop working due to a fan dying causing a cpu to fail is very very low.

    At the end of the day it depends if Dell, Compaq HP etc. are prepared to take a slightly larger hit on their failures. In terms of corporate sales, I still think you are talking a very small %. Of more interest is the ability to buy like performing PCs for $50-100 less. To some companies that's a significant chunk of change scaled over the org....

    Right now, however, we are not likely to see AMD hit big in the corporate board room, they are still 'the other brand'. Until they get the market share and position up there we will not see a change.

    It is possible that will happen when the current cash strapped high school and colledge leavers enter business and remember their $$ effective Duron and Athlon systems from today... But then they may take the company line and stil think Intel, IBM, Microsoft, Cisco, Oracle... etc.

    -* This Space For Rent *-
    email for application details
  19. Quote:
    I don't think companies give a rat's a$$ about a cpu fan or dead cpus.


    I guess you haven’t ever worked in the IT department of a corporation. I can tell you that we do care if a fan or especially if a CPU dies. And believe me HS fans die all the time it isn’t as rare as you may think. From what I've seen, most start to fail after 2 yrs of use. Luckily I haven’t seen a cpu die as a result of the HS fan failure, because we use Intel cpu's. Not AMD, AMD CPU's will fry if the HS fan dies. Yes it is a big deal if the CPU dies, that means downtime for the person using that pc (he or she may be working on an important project), it means IT needs to find a pc for that person to use while theirs is being fixed. It means more work for the IT staff that is being overworked already. A dead PC can F**k everything up. Having no thermal protection on their CPU’s tells me that AMD doesn’t take stability and reliability seriously, they are not ready for the corporate world.


    (A)bort, (R)etry, (G)et a beer?
  20. Well, we have different experience then.
    I talked to one of our tech guys when this came up a few weeks back, and he's never seen a dead CPU fan.

    In theory, there is no difference between theory and practice.
    In practice, there is.
  21. Hmm I guess I didn't make it clear that it was not a motherboard temp sensor option it was a CPU temp option to shutdown when CPU reaches 70c or higher. I never said anything about motherboard temp shutdown. And I believe it takes a 1 gig athlon about 8 seconds to fry without a working HSF. For anyone that has a MSI K7T Turbo get the new bios and check it out. Also what i've heard that Athlon can handle up to like 90c, I know you should never have it this hot but if ur HSF fan goes out I believe the sensor would shutdown my CPU, I believe from 40-45c to 90c will be long enough for Bios to shutdown the computer!
  22. Quote:
    I talked to one of our tech guys when this came up a few weeks back, and he's never seen a dead CPU fan.

    lol. uh ok.. HS fans <b>never</b> die. The IT staff i work with will get a kick out of hearing that. THanks.


    (A)bort, (R)etry, (G)et a beer?
  23. what's your frigg'n point? if I throw 2 AMD puppies into pile of burning <A HREF="http://www.amd.com" target="_new">rubbish</A> I bet they'd both burn up just as fast.

    "AMD/VIA...you are the weakest link, good bye!"
  24. Nope, I didn't say that they never die.

    Just very rarely in my experience. I don't think I've ever known a fan to die with in 2 years once it survived the first week or so.

    We had about 3 dozen Dell machines at work that people had on their desks for e-mail & stuff. They were P200's so at least 5 or so years old, right? The tech I'm talking about did the purchasing & setup for those boxes and supervised or performed all the maintenance since then. He tells me that none have lost a CPU fan. Dead power supplies, hard drives, Zip, even some network cards and a MB. But no CPU fans.

    What is everybody else's experience?


    In theory, there is no difference between theory and practice.
    In practice, there is.
  25. Out of the 60 some server boxes that they pay me to tinker with, one has lost a CPU fan. Fortunately, the bios was set up to halt upon CPU fan error - the RPMs got too low. How handy is that? One new CPU fan (actually, I replaced both while I was in there) and the box was off and running.
    What do the developers kill most often? Hard drives without a doubt.

    Sweating like a rancid chunk of pork
  26. How old are those boxes?

    In theory, there is no difference between theory and practice.
    In practice, there is.
  27. Man, in all my years of working with computers (and I have worked with many, many comps), I have replaced 2 cpu fans--not because they failed, but because they were noisy.

    I have assembled perhaps hundreds of rackmount systems, each with upwards of 6 fans--one fan per power supply, three fans blowing over the card chamber, and one fan per CPU. Some (the 7u's, 9u's, and 11u's) have an additional exhaust fan in the back, and three power supplies instead of two. Some are dual-CPU, meaning yet another fan. Some are split-backplane, meaning perhaps four CPUs. Generally all of them stay powered on constantly, in service for years and years. Very, very few customers ever order spare fans (and these fans are not the kind of fans you can buy at your local computer store, mind you). The one system we had come back for service because of fan failures came back because the fools had disconnected the alarm board that delivered power to the fans.

    The IT department at work has to maintain about 75 workstations. We replaced a fan in one simply because it was abnormally noisy out-of-the-box. Note that these were systems built by the lowest bidder.

    My own chassis has fourteen fans (count 'em, <i>fourteen</i>), and I've never had to replace one.

    Fan failures do happen (every mechanical piece of equipment will fail eventually if you use it long enough), but they are extremely rare.

    Kelledin

    bash-2.04$ kill -9 1
    init: Just what do you think you're doing, Dave?
  28. My point is, If you improperly install the heatsink or it falls off during transport, Power on the system without knowing. Will the Thermal protection will kick in fast enough to save it? I don’t think it will but lets see some Intel supporter prove me wrong.

    The summery of my point is this. If the thermal protection will not save a P4 with no heatsink, the fact AMD has no protection is a non issue.

    Thx & Cya


    <font color=red>There are only 2 types of hard drives. Ones that have crashed and ones that are about to.</font color=red>
  29. Were talking about <b>CPU fans</b> not Power Supply fans or other case fans. I just wanted to make that clear.
    CPU fans are the most likely to fail because they are so small. CPU fan failures do happen, and it's usually more likely to occur after about 2 yrs of use. The main reason is because of lint or dust build up on the small fan blades which causes the fan to be slightly out of balance, over a short period of time the bearings or brushes tend to wear out causing the fan to fail. Have you ever opened a computer up that has been in a busy office environment for 1-2yrs? The amount of dust in them can be outrageous. With server's this is less likely to happen because servers are usually in a clean and sealed room. <b>CPU fan</b> failure is not as extremely rare with personal pc’s as you tend to think. I agree that cpu fan failures are not so common as to call it typical or normal.. but it happens more then I like to see.


    (A)bort, (R)etry, (G)et a beer?
  30. Isn’t the watts a CPU draws directly related to how much CPU utilization is going on. Like when you are benchmarking a P4, running SETI or a 3D game that is really taxing the CPU. Wouldn’t the P4 be at 72.9 watts when the utilization of the CPU is 100%? My Athlon crunches SETI 24/7 and it’s nice to know it’s running at 1 gig all the time and not throttled back by as much as 50%.

    Thx & Cya


    <font color=red>There are only 2 types of hard drives. Ones that have crashed and ones that are about to.</font color=red>
  31. Quote:
    My point is, If you improperly install the heatsink or it falls off during transport, Power on the system without knowing. Will the Thermal protection will kick in fast enough to save it? I don’t think it will but lets see some Intel supporter prove me wrong.

    Yes, the thermal protection on Intel CPU's will kick in. Thats why Intel engineers designed theremal protection into the CPU's. Thats what its there for, fan failures or other situations were heat can be extreme enough to damage the CPU. Can I prove it? No I cant, I dont have a P4 to try it with.


    (A)bort, (R)etry, (G)et a beer?
  32. Why would a small fan fail faster then a big one? Assuming same RPM of course.

    In theory, there is no difference between theory and practice.
    In practice, there is.
  33. Quote:
    Wouldn’t the P4 be at 72.9 watts when the utilization of the CPU is 100%?

    Intel specs show that the 1.3Ghz draws 48.9 watts MAX. It's nice to know that if i were to have a CPU fan failure with a P4 it would shutdown <b>before</b> the CPU burns itself up.


    (A)bort, (R)etry, (G)et a beer?
  34. Quote:
    Why would a small fan fail faster then a big one?

    Because any small imbalance will affect a smaller fan more then a larger fan. Lint and dust build up on small CPU fan blades takes its toll on its smaller bearings much quicker then the big 3.5" or 4” case fans.


    (A)bort, (R)etry, (G)et a beer?
  35. Quote:
    Were talking about CPU fans not Power Supply fans or other case fans.

    I'm talking about all fans--and I'm including CPU fans as well. If anything, our systems should be coming back in for warranty service on CPU fans more than any other fan--the CPU fans are attached almost immovably onto the CPUs or the SBCs, whereas most of the rest are hot-swappable. They <i>never</i> get sent back for CPU fan failures

    Oh, and among the 75 workstations we have at work, the only fan that has failed (or rather, been abnormally noisy) is a case fan, not a CPU fan.

    Kelledin

    bash-2.04$ kill -9 1
    init: Just what do you think you're doing, Dave?
  36. You keep talking about your servers. I thought this discussion has been about CPU fans in personal computers. Again, the main reason CPU fans fail in <b>personal computers</b> is because of dust and lint build up on the small fan blades which causes imbalance which in turn causes the bearings to fail and thus the fan freezes or stops turning. I have seen this happen on numerous occasions. Again, this is less likely to happen with servers because they are typically kept in an environment which is clean and sealed.


    (A)bort, (R)etry, (G)et a beer?
  37. If the fan dies after about 2 years of service, it is likely to be a cheapo sleeve bearing fan. You want something with a ball bearing. Preferably a double ball bearing. The last for ages of constant service. Even with a pretty high rpm.

    What I see happen in big companies is that computers get replaced every couple of years. the performance computers tend to get replaced every year. The servers usually stay for quite a while, but their role changes. For example, a live server of today may be used as a stress test server 2-3 years from now.

    This usually means the administrator never sees a fan and thus the cpu die on them. the puters get replaced well before that happens.


    <font color=red>"My name is Ozymandias, King of Kings:
    Look on my works, ye Mighty, and dispair!"</font color=red>
  38. Errr...you apparently haven't been out on many service calls.

    Big professional companies (the ones that know how to maintain servers) usually keep their servers in more or less a clean-room environment. This was the case at MCI when I was working for them--the server rooms were always clean, and the temperature was always slightly below room temperature.

    Not all companies are as diligent as that though. A lot of our customers have absolutely disgusting server rooms--spaghetti cabling, racks always left open, temperatures above 28 C, servers stacked on top of one another instead of being put in a rack. Some don't even keep their servers in server rooms, but stick them on <i>top</i> of servers that have been stuck where it shouldn't be possible to stick servers. The systems that come back often carry exactly the kind of dust you're talking about, as well as a dozen other marks of maltreatment. A few have actually come back shaped like parallelograms because of the beating they've taken.

    Kelledin

    bash-2.04$ kill -9 1
    init: Just what do you think you're doing, Dave?
  39. Actually, dust unbalancing the fan will have a <b>bigger</b> effect on a bigger fan. A mass imbalance has a longer moment arm to work on with a bigger fan.

    And the systems I was referring to were desktop machines, not servers.


    In theory, there is no difference between theory and practice.
    In practice, there is.
  40. Quote:
    Actually, dust unbalancing the fan will have a bigger effect on a bigger fan. A mass imbalance has a longer moment arm to work on with a bigger fan.

    Yes, an imbalance on a larger fan can have more affect but, by the time you get enough dust on a large 4” fan it could take many many years. The smaller CPU fans are more sensitive to small amounts of debris than the larger fans and are more likely to fail much sooner.


    (A)bort, (R)etry, (G)et a beer?
  41. I believe large fans accumulate just as much dust as small ones--if not more, due to the fact that they move more air. With the same amount of dust, it's still worse on a larger fan. What's critical in the imbalance is the moment of inertia--and the moment of inertia increases when you have more of a rotating body's mass located further from its axis of rotation.

    Kelledin

    bash-2.04$ kill -9 1
    init: Just what do you think you're doing, Dave?
  42. Keep in mind also that CPU fans generally spin at RPM's 2 times the speed or more then large case fans do. Add that to the fact that CPU fans are directly mounted on top of a heatsink which contributes to the fact that debries build up is more common and thus failure is more common on CPU fans.


    (A)bort, (R)etry, (G)et a beer?
  43. Ok I’m obviously confused.

    The article says a P4 1.5 gig uses 72.9 watts of power but you say it only runs at 50 watts of power 99.9% of the time. When dose it run at the 72.9 watts? I don’t see how having a heatsink (or not having one) affects how much power it dissipates. Is the article lying? How does the fan dying make the CPU use more power? The way I see it either the P4 uses 72.9 watts or it uses 50 watts, regardless if the fan is running or not. Also you keep using the p4 1.3 gig for comparison, I’m sure the P4 1.7 uses more power. That’s like me using the Tbird 900 for comparison.

    Thx & Cya


    <font color=red>There are only 2 types of hard drives. Ones that have crashed and ones that are about to.</font color=red>
  44. Then why do case fans fail just as often, if not more often, than CPU fans? This has been the case at home and at every place I've worked, in servers and in workstations. Failures of either kind are rare, even working at places with hundreds of desktop workstations. Overall, even in desktops, CPU fans seem to last even longer than most hard drives--and I'd consider hard drive failure to be a far more serious setback than a toasted CPU.

    And even if a CPU fan does fail, there's still plenty of time for health monitoring software to shut the system down. Remember, a T-bird lasts about an hour with just a heatsink.

    Kelledin

    bash-2.04$ kill -9 1
    init: Just what do you think you're doing, Dave?
  45. Quote:
    Then why do case fans fail just as often, if not more often, than CPU fans?

    I don’t think either of us can back up our experiences with hard solid facts or data. So let’s just leave it at that. In my experience I have seen CPU fans die with much more frequency then case fans. You have a different view. There are other factors such as the quality of the fans that should be taken into account. Neither of us have the facts to back our selves up. I enjoyed the debate, but I’m tired of discussing CPU fans and dust build up. Not really a thrilling subject is it?


    (A)bort, (R)etry, (G)et a beer?
  46. Power increases linearly with frequency and with the square of voltage. That is why I compared the two cpu’s on a clock-to-clock basis. When talking about power consumption it wouldn’t be fair to compare a higher clocked cpu to a lower clocked one.
    Intel’s Thermal Monitor includes an accurate on-die temperature sensing circuit which can tell when the CPU gets too hot. If the CPU exceeds a certain temperature the Thermal Monitor will clock down the CPU using Thermal Modulation until it cools down to normal operating temps.
    The author of that article you refer to fails to mention that Intel tested the P4 with over 200 apps under very stressful conditions. These included: Transaction Processing Performance Council TPC-C, SPEC, SPECint SPECfp, SPECweb, Ziff-Davis 3Dwinbench and Winstone, Microsoft desktop applications, Quake, CorelDraw, Video playback, several of which were run under multiple operating systems. (Including Microsoft Windows 98, Microsoft Windows NT and Linux) and other compute intensive applications.
    During this testing, power consumption never exceeded 75% of max. So CPU throttling is very unlikely to occur unless there is a fan failure or some other major heat related problem. Maybe using a P4 in the Sahara Desert would trigger Thermal Modulation. :)


    (A)bort, (R)etry, (G)et a beer?
  47. >I believe large fans accumulate just as much dust as small
    >ones--if not more, due to the fact that they move more air.

    Agree, they have more surface area, and move much more air. Airflow is roughly proportional to the crossectional area of the fan. And that goes up as the square of the radius.

    And on your later point ... I'll take a CPU failure over a drive failure any day!

    In theory, there is no difference between theory and practice.
    In practice, there is.
  48. "If you improperly install the heatsink or it falls off during transport, Power on the system without knowing. Will the Thermal protection will kick in fast enough to save it?"

    Yes it will. The thermal sensor is actually on the CPU. Within a few seconds the CPU will get excessively hot and throttle down to half speed. If it still continues to rise in temperature the thermal diode will completely shut down the CPU.

    -Raystonn

    = The views stated herein are my personal views, and not necessarily the views of my employer. =
  49. "Wouldn’t the P4 be at 72.9 watts when the utilization of the CPU is 100%?"

    No, the 72.9 watt measurement would be the power draw if all transistors were flipped on and off repeatedly at the same exact time over and over. That's not possible outside of a special electronic testing unit. Your software will never make it go that high. Power draw depends on what instructions are being executed.

    -Raystonn

    = The views stated herein are my personal views, and not necessarily the views of my employer. =
Ask a new question

Read More

CPUs BIOS Intel Product