No. Unfortunately you cannot track a laptop using the serial number. The only thing you can do is report it stolen and provide the serial number in the police report.
As suggested above, you can install Prey or any other tracking software to help recover a stolen the next time around. It's not a 100% bullet proof solution, but it is better than nothing.
I suppose the best way not to have your laptop stolen from you is to pay attention to your surroundings and never leave your laptop alone unless there is someone nearby who you can trust to look after it while you step away for a moment.