Your hard disk is failing/failed. You'll probably need to replace it.
There are a couple things you can do to try and recover any personal files and data on the hard disk if it's still working/partially working.
Attach the laptop hard disk to another computer with an external adapter like these. Make sure you match the type of hard drive correctly. IDE to IDE or SATA to SATA.
You could also make a LiveCD and boot the CD on your laptop. That will allow you to access the hard disk (if it's still working) and save any files that you need. Ubuntu Desktop LiveCD