If you install windows on a HDD on one PC it most certainly won't boot when you move it to the other PC. This is because the drivers that windows needs in order to run are completely different for your PC and your friend's laptop. If you'd have installed it from his laptop then put it in your PC it wouldn't boot either.
You can check if the HDD is actually faulty by doing the following:
Install the laptop HDD inside your PC as a secondary drive, boot into windows from your main drive, now download and install HDtune and check the S.M.A.R.T. tab to see if it checks good, then run a full error scan and see if it finds any bad sectors.