Welcome to Tom's Hardware Forums,
I am thinking your laptop got overheated and thermally shut down. Once that happens on many models, the CPU temp sensor gets put out of whack. A suggested method to "fix" that (not my method although I have tried it) is to place the laptop (battery removed) in a sealed plastic bag and freeze it for about 60-90 minutes. Remove it from the freezer but do NOT remove it from the sealed plastic bag for 2+ hours. After then, remove it from the plastic but let it sit for another 2 hours or so (to ensure all condensation has evaporated. Replace battery, try then.
Worth noting about laptops, it is very important to make sure that adequate airflow is provided to the vents on the bottom - a lap or bed (or other soft surface) is not a healthy place for a running laptop. A cooling pad (I highly recommend this) will do wonders to keep temps controlled.
Hope it helps - I fear if it does not then it may be a problem requiring professional services.