I own an Asus G72GX and whilst attempting to fix the screen issue they are prone to, accidentally fried my motherboard. Now, my question is, can I take my hard drive out of it and plug it into something else, namely the desktop I am going to build? Or is it gone along with the rest of the laptop? Also, what components are scavengable from the machine if any? Thanks.
plug it into your new build. there's no fixed answer to this question because there are varying degrees of mobo-frying. if it works in your build, there's your answer. if not then all you have to do is order a new one and wait for a week or two.
as for parts that you can scavenge, there's not much since it's a laptop and you can't really put laptop parts into desktops, unless you want another laptop and want to upgrade that with parts from your old one, in which case you can get the ram and optical drive (if there is one) out of it. but they might be fried as well.
The nice thing is that laptop hard drives and optical drives are SATA drives so checking them is pretty easy with a desktop if you have extra cables laying around, if not they're fairly inexpensive at most computer stores. And you can check them using your computers existing SATA plugs to it's optical drive if all else fails and you don't want to spend the extra money on cables you don't need.
But as bennaye said you're pretty much limited to the HD, Optical and memory, but memory and optical can only be used in another laptop, unless you find an external enclosure for the optical drive. Which I'm not sure if they even make them (I haven't looked).