No you cannot track your laptop like that unless you install some kind of third party security suite. the best thing you can do is file a police report then hope your renters/home or car(if it was stolen from your car) insurance will cover it.
+1. Without something like Lojack for Laptops previously installed and operating, there is no real means to track a system down after loss/theft (in spite of what gets portrayed on TV and movies). Report the loss to the authorities/insurance is your best course of action.