Page 1:PC Diagnostics, Testing, And Maintenance
Page 2:The POST
Page 3:BIOS POST Beep Codes, Checkpoint Codes, And Onscreen Messages
Page 4:Peripheral And Operating System Diagnostics
Page 5:Commercial Diagnostics Software And Free/User Supported Diagnostics
Page 6:The Boot Process
Page 7:The Hardware Boot Process: Operating System Independent
Page 8:DOS And Windows 9x/Me Boot Processes And Windows 2000/XP Startup
Page 9:Windows 7/Vista And Windows 8 Startup
Page 10:PC Maintenance Tools
Page 11:Hand Tools Continued
Page 13:Test Equipment: Electrical, Loopback Connectors, And Meters
Page 14:Test Equipment: Logic Probes, Outlet Testers, And Memory Module Testers
Page 15:Special Tools For The Enthusiast
Page 16:Preventative Maintenance
Page 17:Cleaning A System
Page 18:System Disassembly And Cleaning Procedures
Page 19:Passive Preventive Maintenance Procedures
Page 20:Passive Preventive Maintenance Procedures Continued
Page 21:Troubleshooting Tips And Techniques
Page 22:Troubleshooting: Replacing Parts And The Bootstrap Approach
Page 23:Problems During POST, Running Software, And Adapter Cards
DOS And Windows 9x/Me Boot Processes And Windows 2000/XP Startup
The DOS Boot Process
MS-DOS and similar operating systems (PC-DOS, DR-DOS, and Freedos) use the following boot process:
- The initial system file (called IO.SYS or IBMBIO.COM) is loaded, and the initialization code copies itself into the highest region of contiguous DOS memory and transfers control to the copy.
- The initialization code loads MSDOS.SYS (or IBMDOS.COM), which initializes the base device drivers, determines equipment status, resets the disk system, resets and initializes attached devices, and sets the system default parameters.
- CONFIG.SYS is read multiple times. On the first pass any DEVICE statements are processed in the order in which they appear; the drivers named are loaded and executed. Then, any INSTALL statements are processed in the order in which they appear; the programs named are loaded and executed. The SHELL statement is processed and loads the specified command processor with the specified parameters. If the CONFIG.SYS file contains no SHELL statement, the default COMMAND.COM processor is loaded with default parameters. Loading the command processor overwrites the initialization code in memory (because the job of the initialization code is finished).
- If AUTOEXEC.BAT is present, COMMAND.COM loads and runs AUTOEXEC.BAT. After the commands in AUTOEXEC.BAT have been executed, the DOS prompt appears (unless AUTOEXEC.BAT calls an application program or shell of some kind, in which case the user might operate the system without ever seeing a DOS prompt). If no AUTOEXEC.BAT file is present, COMMAND.COM executes the internal DATE and TIME commands, displays a copyright message, and displays the DOS prompt.
The Windows 9x/Me Boot Process
The Windows 9x/Me boot process involves two files: IO.SYS and WIN.COM.
Windows 2000/XP Startup
When you start a Windows 2000 or XP system (which is based on the same set of integral code that originated with Windows NT), the boot process is different from that of a DOS or Windows 9x/Me system. Instead of accessing the IO.SYS and MSDOS.SYS files used by 9x/Me, these operating systems use an OS loader program called Ntldr.
The basic startup process is described in the following step-by-step procedures:
- The partition boot sector loads Ntldr (NT Loader). It then switches the processor to protected mode, starts the file system, and reads the contents of Boot.ini. The information in Boot.ini determines the startup options and initial boot menu selections (dual-booting, for example). If dual-booting is enabled and a non-NT/2000/XP OS is chosen, Bootsec.dos is loaded. If SCSI drives are present, Ntbootdd.sys is loaded, which contains the SCSI boot drivers.
- Ntdetect.com gathers hardware configuration data and passes this information to Ntldr. If more than one hardware profile exists, Windows uses the correct one for the current configuration. If the ROM BIOS is ACPI compliant, Windows uses ACPI to enumerate and initialize devices.
- The kernel loads. Ntldr passes information collected by Ntdetect.com to Ntoskrnl.exe. Ntoskrnl then loads the kernel, Hardware Abstraction Layer (Hal.dll), and Registry information. An indicator near the bottom of the screen details progress.
- Drivers load and the user logs on. Networking-related components (for example, TCP/IP) load simultaneously with other services, and the Begin Logon prompt appears onscreen. After a user logs on successfully, Windows updates the Last Known Good Configuration information to reflect the current configuration state.
- PnP detects and configures new devices. If new devices are detected, they are assigned resources. Windows extracts the necessary driver files from Driver.cab. If the driver files are not found, the user is prompted to provide them. Device detection occurs simultaneously with the operating system logon process.
The following files are processed during startup:
- Bootsect.dos (multiple-boot systems only)
- Ntbootdd.sys (loaded only for SCSI drives)
- Files in systemroot System32 Config (Registry)
- Files in systemroot System32 Drivers (drivers)
Note: If you see error messages during startup or your system doesn’t start properly, restart the system, press the F8 key to open the startup menu, and select Enable Boot Logging to create a file called Ntbtlog.txt. This file records events during startup and can help you determine which files or processes are not loading correctly.
- PC Diagnostics, Testing, And Maintenance
- The POST
- BIOS POST Beep Codes, Checkpoint Codes, And Onscreen Messages
- Peripheral And Operating System Diagnostics
- Commercial Diagnostics Software And Free/User Supported Diagnostics
- The Boot Process
- The Hardware Boot Process: Operating System Independent
- DOS And Windows 9x/Me Boot Processes And Windows 2000/XP Startup
- Windows 7/Vista And Windows 8 Startup
- PC Maintenance Tools
- Hand Tools Continued
- Test Equipment: Electrical, Loopback Connectors, And Meters
- Test Equipment: Logic Probes, Outlet Testers, And Memory Module Testers
- Special Tools For The Enthusiast
- Preventative Maintenance
- Cleaning A System
- System Disassembly And Cleaning Procedures
- Passive Preventive Maintenance Procedures
- Passive Preventive Maintenance Procedures Continued
- Troubleshooting Tips And Techniques
- Troubleshooting: Replacing Parts And The Bootstrap Approach
- Problems During POST, Running Software, And Adapter Cards