New SAS 2.0 Features: Expanders, Performance
|SAS 1.0/1.1||SAS 2.0|
|Features||Preserves legacy SCSI SATA compatible||3 Gb/s compatible Improved signaling Zoning management Improved scalability|
|Storage Features||RAID 6 Small form factors HPC High capacity SAS drives Ultra320 SCSI replacement Choice: SATA or SAS Blade servers||RAS (Data Protection) Security (FDE) Clustering Larger Topologies SSDs Virtualization External Storage 4K sector size|
|Line Rate and Cable Throughput||4 x 3 Gb/s (1.2 GB/s)||4 x 6 Gb/s (2.4 GB/s)|
|Cable Length||8 m||10 m|
Expander Zoning and Self-Configuring Expanders
Edge expanders and fanout expanders are nearly history. This is often attributed to updates in SAS 2.0, but the reality is that SAS zoning, which predates 2.0, was already paving the way to eliminating the edge/fanout distinction. Admittedly, zoning is usually implemented in a vendor-specific, rather than industry-standard fashion.
In a nutshell, various SAS zones can now be deployed across shared delivery subsystem hardware. This means that targets (drives) in a storage appliance can be accessed by various initiators through the same SAS expander. Domain segmentation is taken care of through zoning, and access is managed in an exclusive, non-shared manner.
With device discovery moving from the initiator to the SAS expanders, this allows expanders to self-configure their functions. Discovery time on large topologies can thus be reduced and zoning could be standardized to get rid of proprietary solutions.
Doubled Link Throughput
SAS 2.0 mandates that the bandwidth per port doubles, from 3 Gb/s to 6 Gb/s. Quad links, which are typically used for wide ports, go from 1.2 GB/s to 2.4 GB/s. And since SAS HBAs typically offer eight ports organized into two wide ports, the effective maximum throughput stands at 4.8 GB/s.
PCI Express 1.1 then becomes a bottleneck because the popular x8 link width only offers 2.0 GB/s (250 MB/s per lane each way). As a result, all upcoming SAS 2.0 hardware will also be based on PCI Express 2.0 host interfaces, doubling the available bidirectional bandwith to the host to 4.0 GB/s.