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Radeon HD 6990: Power, Cooling, And Size--All Extreme

AMD Radeon HD 6990 4 GB Review: Antilles Makes (Too Much) Noise
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The Radeon HD 6990’s specifications are impressive, to say the least. Enabling them wasn’t easy. And in the process, AMD busted right through the PCI Express 2.0’s 300 W electro-mechanical specification for graphics cards (the Radeon HD 5970 ducked under it with a maximum board power of 294 W).

Officially, the Radeon HD 6990 is rated for up to 375 W. However, AMD claims it designed the card’s cooling solution to be 450 W-capable. Getting there requires two eight-pin auxiliary power connectors. Do the math and it all adds up: a PCI Express x16 slot serves up to 75 W, and each eight-pin connector is specified to deliver 150 W. That’s 375 W, on the dot.

Basically, AMD engineered this thing right up to the limits of what a second-gen PCI Express card can do within the specification for each of its power sources. And it pulled out all of the stops to get there, including specially-screened low-leakage ASICs (minimizing current leakage helps curtail power consumption), a symmetrical layout, and a purportedly higher-efficiency voltage regulation circuit with greater current capacity (we’d certainly hope so).

PowerTune technology also plays an important role in allowing AMD to maximize the 6990’s clock rates for games, while modulating the card’s thermal output in apps like OCCT, without exceeding the board’s limits. I’ll save you the background on PowerTune (I went into plenty of depth on the fifth page of our Cayman coverage). Suffice it to say, it’s still possible to increase/decrease the PowerTune threshold of this card, if you want to dial in its permitted power consumption more granularly.

Half of the 6990's exhaust goes out the front...Half of the 6990's exhaust goes out the front...

It’s hardly a surprise that special effort had to go into cooling the 6990. The PCB is sandwiched on both sides by metal plates providing full-board heat dissipation. A vapor chamber-based heatsink sits on top of each GPU, with phase change thermal interface material between both components. According to AMD, it sees an 8% improvement in thermal performance compared to previous cooling solutions as a result of the gap-closing flow inherent to this class of TIM. A centrifugal fan sits between the two chambers in a mid-mounted orientation. AMD says its gets 20% more airflow from this implementation versus older designs with rear-mounted fans.

...the other half exhausts into your case...the other half exhausts into your case

That’s the good news. The bad news is a fan in the center means blowing half of your exhaust out the I/O bracket, where you want it to go, and the other half back into your chassis, where you decidedly don’t want it to go (especially when you’re talking about half of the heat from the hottest graphics card ever manufactured). Depending on your build, a mid-mounted fan can be a deal-breaker; it’ll almost assuredly cause complications in a dual-card configuration. But AMD doesn’t provide any guidance whatsoever regarding chassis requirements for this board.

As if to prove it engineered this card beyond what the second-gen PCI Express spec officially supports, AMD takes the dual-BIOS concept introduced on its single-GPU Radeon HD 6900-series cards and puts it to some use. By default, the Radeon HD 6990 runs an 830 MHz core clock at 1.12 V. Flip the switch next to the CrossFire connector, though, and both settings jump to 880 MHz and 1.175 V, respectively, upping the power ceiling to 450 W (clearly, those eight-pin connectors aren't limited to 150 W).

Now, this still isn’t the same as a Radeon HD 6970 since the memory clock remains at 1250 MHz in both cases. But AMD does facilitate clocks of up to 1200 MHz core and 1500 MHz memory through Overdrive. If you have the will to push this card further, AMD lays the foundation. Be forewarned, though. Even if you damage the card using its built-in second BIOS, warranty coverage won’t apply.

It’s Big, But No Bigger Than Radeon HD 5970

Early shots of vice president and general manager of AMD’s graphics products group Matt Skynner holding Radeon HD 6990 made the card look huge. And it is a big card. But at 12”, it’s no larger than the Radeon HD 5970.

Fortunately, both eight-pin power connectors are located on top of the card, rather than the back. If your case will take a foot-long graphics card, you don’t need to worry about extra clearance back there for cables. You do, however, have to worry about ventilation. Back the board up to a hard drive cage and you’re looking at hampered cooling capacity.

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  • -2 Hide
    hayest , March 8, 2011 3:34 AM
    Killer Card!

    Out of spec for default seems kind of weird though.
  • -2 Hide
    CrazeEAdrian , March 8, 2011 3:37 AM
    Great job AMD. You need to expect noise and heat when dealing with a card that beasts out that kind of performance, it's part of the territory.
  • 7 Hide
    jprahman , March 8, 2011 3:40 AM
    This thing is a monster, 375W TDP, 4GB of VRAM! Some people don't even have 4GB of regular RAM in their systems, let alone on their video card.
  • 1 Hide
    one-shot , March 8, 2011 3:43 AM
    Did I miss the load power draw? I just noticed the idle and noise ratings. It would be informative to see the power draw of Crossfire 6990s and overclocked i7. I see the graph, but a chart with CPU only and GPU only followed by a combination of both would be nice to see.
  • 0 Hide
    anacandor , March 8, 2011 3:44 AM
    For the people that actually buy this card, i'm sure they'll be able to afford an aftermarket cooler for this thing once they come out...
  • 0 Hide
    wino85 , March 8, 2011 3:46 AM
    OMG!!! It's finally here.
  • 0 Hide
    cangelini , March 8, 2011 3:48 AM
    one-shotDid I miss the load power draw? I just noticed the idle and noise ratings. It would be informative to see the power draw of Crossfire 6990s and overclocked i7. I see the graph, but a chart with CPU only and GPU only followed by a combination of both would be nice to see.


    We don't have two cards here to test, unfortunately. The logged load results for a single card are on the same page, though!
  • -1 Hide
    bombat1994 , March 8, 2011 3:52 AM
    things we need to see are this thing water cooled.

    and tested at 7680 x 1600

    that will see just how well it does.

    That thing is an absolute monster of a card.

    They really should have made it 32nm. then the power draw would have fallen below 300w and the thing would be cooler.

    STILL NICE WORK AMD
  • -1 Hide
    Bigmac80 , March 8, 2011 3:53 AM
    Pretty fast i wonder if this will be cheaper then 2 GTX 570's or 2 6950's?
    But omg this thing is freakin loud. What's the point of having a quite system now with Noctua fans :( 
  • 2 Hide
    tacoslave , March 8, 2011 3:54 AM
    Its hot, sucks alot of power, and costs a ton. But i still want one.








    Badly
  • 7 Hide
    lashton , March 8, 2011 3:54 AM
    AMD doesn't care about noise because they are waiting for custom colling solutions from OEM
  • -1 Hide
    lashton , March 8, 2011 3:56 AM
    bombat1994things we need to see are this thing water cooled.and tested at 7680 x 1600that will see just how well it does.That thing is an absolute monster of a card.They really should have made it 32nm. then the power draw would have fallen below 300w and the thing would be cooler.STILL NICE WORK AMD

    That maybe possible when they get 28nm ready on bulldozer, they are just raping the rewards of old tech.
  • 1 Hide
    scrumworks , March 8, 2011 4:01 AM
    Starts with negative comments (noise), so no surprises from Chris. Fermi of course never made so much noise and consume so much power that would require this type commenting. Everything was Power, PhysX and CUDA!
  • 0 Hide
    4745454b , March 8, 2011 4:03 AM
    Meh. To much for what it is. The only thing it does better then two 6970s is in power. (if one 6970 is 250W and this is 375W, then it uses less power then 2x6970.) But I agree that you're better off with a CF setup. Like the GTX480 and possibly the GTX580, its simply to much for what you pay for.

    Edit: I should say its either to much or to little and always in the wrong way for what you pay for. I also dislike the the 375W TDP. We have specs/rules for a reason.
  • 0 Hide
    Haserath , March 8, 2011 4:04 AM
    I think AMD will have the performance monster this round. It would be surprising if Nvidia was anticipating something like this. The GTX 570 already uses quite a few more Watts than the 6970; what will they do to match two 6970's on one board?
    This is isanity!
  • 0 Hide
    megamanx00 , March 8, 2011 4:14 AM
    OMFG!!!!

    Well, I guess if you were thinking of running 3, or even 6 displays (which would require at least one hub or daisy chain monitor), this is the card you would want, perhaps even two of them. I'm guessing if you put two of them in you really really want it water cooled.
  • 0 Hide
    MasterMace , March 8, 2011 4:14 AM
    Careful, you may not be able to here a tornado siren a mile away with this one.
  • -1 Hide
    nforce4max , March 8, 2011 4:17 AM
    Well at least it is cheaper than the two 7900gtx duos (eom) that landed some years after introduction. Personally I wouldn't purchase this card knowing the driver bugs and the usual issues that dual gpu cards have except I'll wait a few years to snatch one up on the cheap as a collectors item. For those who got the money wait at least two or three weeks for reviews and complaints by owners of this card before you buy one. I can live with the noise but bad drivers I can't.
  • 4 Hide
    cangelini , March 8, 2011 4:45 AM
    scrumworksStarts with negative comments (noise), so no surprises from Chris. Fermi of course never made so much noise and consume so much power that would require this type commenting. Everything was Power, PhysX and CUDA!


    LOL. Look at the power AND noise graphs, scrum :) 
  • 3 Hide
    dragonsqrrl , March 8, 2011 4:45 AM
    It looks like the improved CrossFireX scaling introduced with the HD6000 series really helps the HD6990 shine. There's no question about it, this thing's a top of the line performance beast.

    The big (and really inexcusable) problem is the noise, and to a lesser extent power consumption. It's by far the loudest single card stock cooler ever conceived, and that's taking into account the former champions, the GTX480 and HD5970. The load temps aren't great, but they're acceptable in my opinion. I'm not sure what people were expecting, but this is an extreme high-end dual GPU card, and load temps in the upper 80's C aren't uncommon in this performance segment. The problem is once again the excessive noise that's generated in order to keep the 2 GPU's running at those already high temps.

    I totally agree with the reviewer, the HD6990 seems rushed, the drivers are buggy, and if running a fan at 3k+ RPM is the only way to keep a card operating, it probably needs a little more tweaking before release.

    lashtonThat maybe possible when they get 28nm ready on bulldozer, they are just raping the rewards of old tech.

    Bulldozer will be manufactured using Global Foundries 32nm process, not 28. The node shrink you're referring to for next-gen GPU's will be manufactured using a completely different 28nm process at TSMC. AMD uses Golbal Foundries only for its CPU's at this time.
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