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Athlon XP-64 Core: 95 Percent Athlon, Continued

AMD's Athlon 64 Has Arrived: the Athlon 64 FX and Athlon 64 (and Intel's P4 Extreme)
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The real innovations are in the details. At the heart of the CPU is a crossbar switch (XBAR), which manages the data streams between the memory controller, CPU core and the three HyperTransport ports. Compared to the Athlon 64, which is only meant for single-processor operation, the Opteron has a controller logic that allows multi-processor operation. Thus, when used for a server, up to eight Opterons can work together without a Northbridge. Furthermore, an SSE2-compatible unit has been added, which has twice the amount of registers (16) as the Intel P4. Fundamental changes are to be found at the command processing level: the Transition Look-aside Buffers (TLB) have been reworked for larger workloads (1000 entries max.). Basically, the more entries in the TLB, the less frequently the translation tables have to be accessed in system memory when transmitting the physical address.


The fundamental structure of the Hammer is not much different from the Athlon: the 3 integer and 3 floating point units have remained as unchanged as the three x86 decoders. The caches now have ECC circuitry. The crucial changes are in the details.
CPU core Hammer Barton Thoroughbred "B"
Wafer area (200 mm diameter) 31416 mm² 31416 mm² 31416 mm²
Die area 193 mm² 101 mm² 84 mm²
Process technology 0.13 µm 0.13 µm 0.13 µm
Waste 18 percent 18 percent 18 percent
Theoretical maximum yield 122 pcs/wafer 255 pcs/wafer 306 pcs/wafer
Yield at 60% rate 73 pcs/wafer 153 pcs/wafer 183 pcs/wafer
CPU core Thoroughbred "A" Palomino Thunderbird
Wafer area (200 mm diameter) 31416 mm² 31416 mm² 31416 mm²
Die area 80 mm² 128 mm² 128 mm²
Process technology 0.13 µm 0.18 µm 0.18 µm
Waste 18 percent 18 percent 18 percent
Theoretical maximum yield 322 pcs/wafer 201 pcs/wafer 201 pcs/wafer
Yield at 60% rate 193 pcs/wafer 120 pcs/wafer 120 pcs/wafer

Ultimately, that saves time so that commands require less speed. Compared to the Thoroughbred and Barton cores, the TLBs work with a smaller latency time, which, in turn, leads to an increase in speed. The branch prediction was also reworked in that the History Counter stores up to 16,000 entries (Athlon XP - 4,000). In order to accommodate higher clock speeds, AMD extended the pipeline of the Hammer to 12 stages - the old Athlon has only 10 stages, while the current Intel P4 (and Xeon) uses 20 stages. This allows the execution units to be supplied more quickly with consecutive commands, and does away with wait states.

A significant new feature: the extended 64 bit register.
Summary
  1. A New World Order: The Athlon 64 FX And Athlon 64 Vs. The P4 Extreme
  2. A New World Order: The Athlon 64 FX And Athlon 64 Vs. The P4 Extreme, Continued
  3. A New World Order: The Athlon 64 FX And Athlon 64 Vs. The P4 Extreme, Continued
  4. Four Different CPUs With One Design
  5. Four Different CPUs With One Design, Continued
  6. Chipsets & Mainboards: Socket 754 Vs. Socket 940
  7. Chipsets & Mainboards: Socket 754 Vs. Socket 940, Continued
  8. Video 10 To Download: Athlon 64 FX-51 Vs. Athlon 64 Vs. P4 3.2 Extreme
  9. Athlon XP-64 Core: 95 Percent Athlon
  10. Athlon XP-64 Core: 95 Percent Athlon, Continued
  11. HyperTransport: A High-speed Bus Without Detours
  12. Socket 462 Gets Replaced: Sockets 745 And 940/939
  13. Fab30 Dresden Yield: 73 Athlon 64 CPUs Per Wafer!
  14. All AMD And Intel Processors At A Glance
  15. Rough Going - Hardware In The Test Panel
  16. Asus P4C800-E Deluxe: Board Revision 1.02, BIOS 1011 Beta 006
  17. Asus SK8N: Board Revision 1.03, BIOS 1003 Beta 003 (NVIDIA Settings)
  18. MSI MS-9130: Board Revision 1.0, BIOS 1.0BD
  19. General Hardware: Now More Hard Drive Performance
  20. AMD Test Platforms At A Glance
  21. Test Configuration And Special Features
  22. Sysmark 2002: Why Use Obsolete Applications?
  23. Benchmarks Under Windows XP - UPDATED
  24. SPECviewperf 7.1
  25. OpenGL Games: Serious Sam
  26. OpenGL Games: Wolfenstein Enemy Territory
  27. Synthetic: 3D Mark 2001 SE
  28. Games: Comanche 4
  29. Games: Unreal Tournament 2003
  30. Games: Splinter Cell
  31. Games: Warcraft III - The Frozen Throne
  32. Synthetic: 3D Mark 2003
  33. Game: X2 - The Threat Rolling
  34. Game: Gun Metal
  35. Games: AquaMark3
  36. MPEG Encoding: Main Concept MPEG Encoder
  37. MPEG-Encoding: Pinnacle Studio 8.8
  38. MPEG-Encoding: Xmpeg & Divx 5.1 Pro
  39. MPEG-Encoding: Windows Media Encoder 9
  40. MPEG-Encoding: MS Movie Maker 2
  41. Magix MP3 Maker 2004 Diamond
  42. Lame MP3 Encoder
  43. Steinberg Nuendo 2
  44. Sysmark 2002
  45. Winrar 3.2
  46. Newtek Lightwave 7.5
  47. Cinema 4D XL 8.1
  48. Seti@home 3.03
  49. 3D Studio Max 5.1
  50. Mathematica 5
  51. PC Mark 2002 Pro
  52. SiSoft Sandra Max 3
  53. Heat Protection: Now From AMD, Too
  54. Summary: The P4 3.2 EE Wins 32 Times, The Athlon 64 FX-51 15 Times - An Uncertain 64 Bit Future For AMD
  55. Summary: An Uncertain 64 Bit Future For AMD, Continued
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