Tesla and the GeForce 8000, 9000, 100, 200, and 300 series were followed by Nvidia's Fermi architecture and the GeForce 400 series in 2010. The largest Fermi chip ever produced was the GF100, which contained four GPCs. Each GPC had four Streaming Multiprocessors, with 32 CUDA cores, four TMUs, three ROPs, and a PolyMorph Engine. A perfect GF100 core shipped with a total of 512 CUDA cores, 64 TMUs, 48 ROPs, and 16 PolyMorph Engines.
However, the GeForce GTX 480 ( the original Fermi flagship) shipped with just 480 CUDA cores, 60 TMUs, 48 ROPs, and 15 PolyMorph Engines enabled. Due to the hardware resources present in GF100, it was an enormous 529 square millimeters in area. This made it rather difficult to produce perfect samples, and forced Nvidia to use slightly defective cores instead. The GeForce GTX 480 also gained a reputation for running excessively hot. Nvidia and its board partners typically used beefy thermal solutions on the GTX 480 as well, which tended to be loud and earned the graphics card a reputation as one of the nosiest GPUs in recent years.