A Foundation For Case Cooling: Fans
After explaining the theoretical background in Part One, we're ready to wrap things up in our quest to help you plan and pick the parts for your next air-cooled PC. Admittedly, this excursion also includes a bit of theory. But our main goal here really is to push forward with an actual build. We'll be talking about case fans, heat sinks, thermal grease, and graphics card cooling.
Why Do We Care About Case Fans?
In the last piece, we briefly discussed the chimney effect. However, convection on its own is not sufficient for cooling a desktop PC. The more heat your hardware dissipates, the more air is needed to exhaust it out of your enclosures. This is largely achieved using case fans, which come in many different sizes.
The right combination of case fans plays a huge role in determining the cooling performance of your PC, plus the noise it generates. There are a few rules to follow for maximizing air volume at modest noise levels, and we'll get into those as well.
Will A Small Fan Work, Or Is Bigger Better?
The size of your case fans is often dictated by the chassis you choose and the mounting holes it includes. Fans come in several standard sizes, but we're focusing on 60, 80, 92, 120, and 140 mm models. Larger fans do exist, but a majority of those come factory-installed.
Fans move air using an array of spinning blades, similar to an airplane propeller. When a fan has to spin faster to move more air, it makes more noise. Conversely, blades that turn slower are also more quiet. You can compensate for the loss in air volume from a slower-spinning fan by increasing its diameter. Here's the takeaway: whenever possible, favor a large, slow fan to a small, fast fan. Most case vendors follow this line of thinking and include 120 mm and larger coolers with their enclosures. In general, smaller 80 mm fans are falling out of vogue as a result of the noise they create.
Of course, you don't have to shun 80 mm fans entirely. High-quality coolers can easily run more quietly than less-precisely-manufactured fans, even when they're smaller. We include an affordable 80 mm model in our forthcoming recommendations, which could easily replace a noisy model, if that's all your chassis can accommodate.
Fans are either speed-controlled or they're not, and a fan's connector tells you the complete tale. We'll cover voltages, pin-out changes, and simple ways of controlling fan speed. But, in general, case fans run on 12 volts. This voltage is supplied either by the motherboard or directly from the power supply. In the latter case, big four-pin Molex connectors are used (though only two of the four pins, ground and 12 V, are actually needed). Smaller fan connectors are also standardized by Molex. They plug into outputs built onto motherboards or emanating from a dedicated fan controller.
The three-pin plug includes a tachometer feedback signal, which lets the motherboard read a fan's rotational speed. This can then be controlled by varying supply voltage. Fans with four-pin connectors are more common on CPU coolers, and their speed can be controlled with PWM (pulse-width modulation), typically temperature-dependent.
Current page: A Foundation For Case Cooling: FansNext Page Case Fans: Air Flow And Noise Level
Stay on the Cutting Edge
Join the experts who read Tom's Hardware for the inside track on enthusiast PC tech news — and have for over 25 years. We'll send breaking news and in-depth reviews of CPUs, GPUs, AI, maker hardware and more straight to your inbox.
Helpful even for myself (who has been building PCs for years). Granted all it really told me is that I was doing it right all along, but it did give me some useful bits of information that I didn't know before.Reply
Kind of disappointed that the process of aftermarket GPU cooling wasn't explained more. That is something I have never done before, but always wanted to try out on one of my older cards.
gloves? who uses gloves :P I use my finger :) I have been doing it before there was even aftermarket paste :PReply
the trick is, that i did and do twist, BUT i double check how much paste there is on the heatsink and the cpu, if there is enough I then fix it up on both ends and press the 2 together and do small twist... in fact if you have it lapped, you can twist a bit and it starts to give some resistance... IMO this tells me that access paste has distributed even and any access is gone...
This works so well that you cant separate the heatsink and cpu if you try to pull it straight off most of the time, but have to switch and move it.
How do I know it works? wouldnt be getting the results i did.. my old 720 be unlocked 4 cores and running at 3.3ghz .. I recently replaced it recently with Noctura D14 and phenom II X6, that I dialed into 4.13ghz
but then again I would say don't do this at home :P (the way I do it works good enough when using thicker pastes, such as the arctic silver 5)
***I forgot to mention that this works for those heatsinks were you have a strap and not screws... I agree that those that have high pressure through screws you probably should not move or twist... but all those heatsinks that can create a lopsided effect due to the strap, this way works very well, especially when having thermal paste on both ends, and best way is to strap it down and take it apart, examine it and then fix it up add/remove any paste and place it back on.***
For the noob this is a good enough article...
On page 5 the second picture the top case fan points down yet hot air comes up.Reply
Im curious although it wont have a large affect, if the CPU cooler fan would act like a puller if put on the left side whether it would hurt or help the memory temps
Really good article, and a real help. Just thought i'd chip in with what i know/have to ask....Reply
I remember reading that sleeve bearing fans should not be used horizontally, that shortens the life span of the fan and makes it noisier over time. Something to do with the fluid in the bearing. Other bearings don't have this problem.
I also remember watching a program on NatGeo on submarines. Apparently modern day subs use propellors with a large number of thin blades. This basically avoids pressure diferences between water in front of the blade (in the direction it's spinning), thus prevents excessive low pressure in the region through which a propellor has passed. This avoids small bubbles of steam from building up and then popping, causing noise.
Seeing that air is a fluid too, i wonder if a similar principal will apply to it. Of course, there wont be any air bubbles popping in air, but i'm wondering if turbulence has any role to play, since i assume more blades=less turbulence. not sure though.
dB(A) is the A-curve...what about the C-curve? That's got more bass, which may be audible as a hum...C-cure measurements seem to ba a decible or three higher than A...
If the fans are connected to the mobo, you could use SpeedFan too...
With respect to the positive pressure section:
You say it goes against natural convection. What if i set the front and side panel as intake and the rear and top fans as the exhaust? I'm assuming the PSU is bottom mounted. Would it still go against convection?
What about neutral air pressure?
If, for example, the cooler needs to be re-seated following improper installation, is it a good idea to use isopropyl alcohol (Doctor's Alcohol) to clean the CPU and heatsink?
Cooler Master fans are pretty good, their higher quality fans 120mm fans move 79 to 90 CFM, their 200mm megaflow moves about 110 CFM. In both cases, rated noise is 19 dB(A). however, no rubber screws or frame so a that's a con.
BTW there's no prob with exposed heatpipes and the Arctic Silver, is there?
I've been doing the whole spread the paste evenly flat onto the CPU/Cooler for almost 8 years now. I'm not a professional when it comes to this solution, nor do i have eyes of a hawk to know if i do it right all the time, the temps seem to be right. I wish you guys did a temp difference on how the paste was spread in a lot different ways to give me a point of view of if there is any difference in temps, obviously the one where you can see the writing more then likely is not effective. Great article as always, cheers!Reply
I'm not sure about all the other questions, but i know 90% isopropyl alcohol will work to remove thermal paste. "Goof Off" or similar products are even better. Also, i'd suggest using a coffee filter to apply the alcohol or goof off and wipe away the paste. that's what i do, works every time.
I read years ago that thinner the layer of thermal paste, the better.Reply
Well...not THIN as in barely there thin but just enough to make lettering opaque, not completely covered.
I thought the paste is just to fill in cracks and imperfections on the heat sink and the surface of the processor...
also any word on Zalman's heat paste that comes in liquidy paste? it comes in a small bottle with a brush like nail polish...been using that all this time...
i've sometimes moved a fan's molex wires from 12v to 5v for silence's sake, but sometime it was too much. never knew i could get 7v by crossing the 12v and 5v lines like that (and wouldn't have dared try if i'd even thought of it anyway), glad to know there's another option there!Reply
I would have liked to seen silverstone's air penetrater fans in here. Just to see how they stack up against other fans.Reply
I think that you may have proven my case for GPU cooling being superior as a case exhaust design over the shroud design. The shroud design produces temperatures from 10-30 C above the case exhaust designs.Reply
My own experience with a GTX 470 (from PNY) with a shroud showed an idle temperature abour 45-48 C. When I modded the card with a Zalman 2000F cooler the temperatures dropped to 30 C at idle. This (delta) temperature reduction was consistant for all uses: from idle to load. Similar loads produced temperatures that were 15-20 degrees C cooler with the case exhaust method over the shroud.
Just two weeks ago I added a second GTX 470 (from Galaxy) in SLI. This model has, what is touted to be, superior cooling to the reference design. It consistantly runs about 10 C hotter than the PNY cooled by thge Zalman aftermarket cooler at idle. Because of space considerations the shroud design had to be mounted above the case exhaust GPU. When the GPU load is increased the shroud design temperatures show a increase (delta) of 15- 20 C over the case exhaust. This is expected, as the top mounted GPU is the one with the major work load.
I ordered the mesh sided side door from Corsair (600T) to provide extra ventillation from a side panel fan blowing on the GPUs. If this configuration works, I expect a 5-7 degree C in the top mounted
GPU. I will be using the 200 mm fan (from Corsair) that was modded out from the top of the case when I replaced it with two 120 mm fans (from Xigmatek).