The next level of power protection includes backup power-protection devices. These units can provide power in case of a complete blackout, thereby providing the time necessary for an orderly system shutdown. Two types are available: the SPS and the uninterruptible power supply (UPS). The UPS is a special device because it does much more than just provide backup power; it is also the best kind of line conditioner you can buy.
Standby Power Supplies
A standby power supply is known as an offline device: It functions only when normal power is disrupted. An SPS system uses a special circuit that can sense the AC line current. If the sensor detects a loss of power on the line, the system quickly switches over to a standby battery and power inverter. The power inverter converts the battery power to 120 V AC power, which is then supplied to the system.
For a stand-by (switching) type UPS to work, the hold-up time of the power supply has to be longer than the switching time of the UPS. For example, I have a TrippLite SMART1000LCD, which is a stand-by type UPS with a 4ms switching time. Because this is well below the 16ms hold-up time called for in the official Power Supply Design Guide, it should switch well before any properly designed and functioning power supply allows the system to reset. Unfortunately if the power supply in a PC is poorly designed or overloaded, it may be disrupted by even a 4ms switch, causing the system to shut down or reset anyway, and all unsaved work to be lost.
A truly outstanding SPS adds to the circuit a ferroresonant transformer, which is a large transformer with the capability to store a small amount of power and deliver it during the switch time. This device functions as a buffer on the power line, giving the SPS almost uninterruptible capability.
Tip: Look for SPS systems with a switch-over time of less than 10 milliseconds (ms). This is shorter than the hold-up time of typical power supplies.
SPS units also might have internal line conditioning of their own. Under normal circumstances, most cheaper units place your system directly on the regular power line and offer no conditioning. The addition of a ferroresonant transformer to an SPS gives it extra regulation and protection capabilities because of the buffer effect of the transformer. SPS devices without the ferroresonant transformer still require the use of a line conditioner for full protection. SPS systems usually cost between a hundred and several thousand dollars, depending on the quality and power-output capacity.
Perhaps the best overall solution to any power problem is to provide a power source that is conditioned and that can’t be interrupted—which is the definition of an uninterruptible power supply. UPSs are known as online systems because they continuously function and supply power to your computer systems. Because some companies advertise ferroresonant SPS devices as though they were UPS devices, many now use the term true UPS to describe a truly online system. A true UPS system is constructed in much the same way as an SPS system; however, because the computer is always operating from the battery, there is no switching circuit.
In a true UPS, your system always operates from the battery. A voltage inverter converts from +12 V DC to 120 V AC. You essentially have your own private power system that generates power independently of the AC line. A battery charger connected to the line or wall current keeps the battery charged at a rate equal to or greater than the rate at which power is consumed.
When the AC current supplying the battery charger fails, a true UPS continues functioning undisturbed because the battery-charging function is all that is lost. Because the computer was already running off the battery, no switch takes place and no power disruption is possible. The battery begins discharging at a rate dictated by the amount of load your system places on the unit, which (based on the size of the battery) gives you plenty of time to execute an orderly system shutdown. Based on an appropriately scaled storage battery, the UPS functions continuously, generating power and preventing unpleasant surprises. When the line power returns, the battery charger begins recharging the battery, again with no interruption.
Note: Occasionally, a UPS can accumulate too much storage and not enough discharge. When this occurs, the UPS emits a loud alarm, alerting you that it’s full. Simply unplugging the unit from the AC power source for a while can discharge the excess storage (as it powers your computer) and drain the UPS of the excess.
Many SPS systems are advertised as though they are true UPS systems. You can tell a Standby Power Supply from a true UPS by the unit’s switch time. If a specification for switch time exists, the unit can’t be a true UPS because UPS units never switch. However, true UPS systems are very expensive, and a good SPS with a ferroresonant transformer can virtually equal the performance of a true UPS at a much lower cost.
Note: Many UPSs and SPSs today come equipped with a cable and software that enables the protected computer to shut down in an orderly manner on receipt of a signal from the UPS. This way, the system can shut down properly even if the computer is unattended. Some OSs designed for server environments contain their own UPS software components.
UPS cost is a direct function of both the length of time it can continue to provide power after a line current failure and how much power it can provide. You therefore should purchase a UPS that provides enough power to run your system and peripherals and enough time to close files and provide an orderly shutdown. Remember, however, to manually perform a system shutdown procedure during a power outage. You will probably need your monitor plugged into the UPS and the computer. Be sure the UPS you purchase can provide sufficient power for all the devices you must connect to it.
Because of a true UPS’s almost total isolation from the line current, it is unmatched as a line conditioner and surge suppressor. The best UPS systems add a ferroresonant transformer for even greater power conditioning and protection capability. This type of UPS is the best form of power protection available. The price, however, can be high. To find out just how much power your computer system requires, look at the UL sticker on the back of the unit. This sticker lists the maximum power draw in watts, or sometimes in just volts and amperes. If only voltage and amperage are listed, multiply the two figures to calculate the wattage.
As an example, if the documentation for a system indicates that the computer can require as much as 120 V at a maximum current draw of five amps, the maximum power the system can draw is about 550 watts. The system should never draw any more power than that; if it does, a five-amp fuse in the power supply will blow. This type of system usually draws an average of 200 to 300 watts. However, to be safe when you make calculations for UPS capacity, be conservative; use the 550-watt figure. Adding an LCD monitor that draws 50 watts brings the total to 600 watts or more. Therefore, to run two fully loaded systems (including monitors), you’d need a 1200-watt UPS. A UPS of that capacity or greater normally costs several hundred dollars. Unfortunately, that is what the best level of protection costs. Most companies can justify this type of expense only for critical-use PCs, such as network servers.
Note: The highest-capacity UPS sold for use with a conventional 15-amp outlet is about 1400 watts. If it’s any higher, you risk tripping a 15-amp circuit when the battery is charging heavily and the inverter is drawing maximum current.
In addition to the total available output power (wattage), several other factors can distinguish one UPS from another. The addition of a ferroresonant transformer improves a unit’s power conditioning and buffering capabilities. Good units also have an inverter that produces a true sine wave output; the cheaper ones might generate a square wave. A square wave is an approximation of a sine wave with abrupt up-and-down voltage transitions. The abrupt transitions of a square wave are not compatible with some computer equipment power supplies. Be sure that the UPS you purchase produces power that is compatible with your computer equipment. Every unit has a specification for how long it can sustain output at the rated level. If your systems draw less than the rated level, you have some additional time.
Caution: Be careful! Most UPS systems are not designed for you to sit and compute for hours through an electrical blackout. They are designed to provide power only to essential components and to remain operating long enough to allow for an orderly shutdown. You pay a large amount for units that provide power for more than 15 minutes or so. At some point, it becomes more cost-effective to buy a generator than to keep investing in extended life for a UPS.
Some of the many sources of power protection equipment include American Power Conversion (APC) and Tripp Lite. These companies sell a variety of UPS, SPS, line protector, and surge protector products.
Caution: Don’t connect a laser printer to a backed-up socket in any SPS or UPS unit. Such printers are electrically noisy and have widely varying current draws. This can be hard on the inverter in an SPS or a UPS and frequently cause the inverter to fail or detect an overload and shut down. Either case means that your system will lose power, too.
Printers are normally noncritical because whatever is being printed can be reprinted. Don’t connect them to a UPS unless there’s a good business need to do so.
Some UPSs and SPSs have sockets that are conditioned but not backed up—that is, they do not draw power from the battery. In cases such as this, you can safely plug printers and other peripherals into these sockets.
- Power-Use Calculations
- Power Savings: 80 PLUS, Energy Star, Advanced Power Management
- Power Savings: Advanced Configuration And Power Interface
- Power Cycling
- Power Supply Troubleshooting: Basics, Overloading, Cooling
- Power Supply Troubleshooting: Test Equipment
- Power Supply Recommendations
- Power-Protection Systems: Surge Protectors And Line Conditioners
- Power-Protection Systems: Backup Power Options
- Real-Time Clock/Nonvolatile RAM (CMOS RAM) Batteries