Page 1:PC Diagnostics, Testing, And Maintenance
Page 2:The POST
Page 3:BIOS POST Beep Codes, Checkpoint Codes, And Onscreen Messages
Page 4:Peripheral And Operating System Diagnostics
Page 5:Commercial Diagnostics Software And Free/User Supported Diagnostics
Page 6:The Boot Process
Page 7:The Hardware Boot Process: Operating System Independent
Page 8:DOS And Windows 9x/Me Boot Processes And Windows 2000/XP Startup
Page 9:Windows 7/Vista And Windows 8 Startup
Page 10:PC Maintenance Tools
Page 11:Hand Tools Continued
Page 13:Test Equipment: Electrical, Loopback Connectors, And Meters
Page 14:Test Equipment: Logic Probes, Outlet Testers, And Memory Module Testers
Page 15:Special Tools For The Enthusiast
Page 16:Preventative Maintenance
Page 17:Cleaning A System
Page 18:System Disassembly And Cleaning Procedures
Page 19:Passive Preventive Maintenance Procedures
Page 20:Passive Preventive Maintenance Procedures Continued
Page 21:Troubleshooting Tips And Techniques
Page 22:Troubleshooting: Replacing Parts And The Bootstrap Approach
Page 23:Problems During POST, Running Software, And Adapter Cards
Special Tools For The Enthusiast
All the tools described so far are commonly used by most technicians. However, a few additional tools do exist that a true PC enthusiast might want to have.
Perhaps the most useful tool I use is an electric screwdriver. It enables me to disassemble and reassemble a PC in record time and makes the job not only faster but easier as well. I like the type with a clutch you can use to set how tight it will make the screws before slipping; such a clutch makes the tool even faster to use. If you use the driver frequently, it makes sense to use the type with replaceable, rechargeable batteries, so when one battery dies you can quickly replace it with a fresh one.
Note that using an electric screwdriver when installing a motherboard can be dangerous because the bit can easily slip off the screw and damage the board. A telltale series of swirling scratches near the screw holes on the board can be the result, for which most manufacturers rightfully deny a warranty claim. Be especially careful if your motherboard is retained with Phillips-head screws because they are extremely easy for the bit to slip out of.
Determining the interior temperature of a PC is often useful when diagnosing whether heat-related issues are causing problems. The simplest and best tool I’ve found for the job is the digital thermometers sold at most auto parts stores for automobile use. They are designed to read the temperature inside and outside the car and normally come with an internal sensor, as well as one at the end of a length of wire.
Normally, the maximum limit for internal air temperature should be 110°F (43°C) or less. If your system is running near or above that temperature, problems can be expected.
Another useful temperature tool is a noncontact infrared (IR) thermometer, which is a special type of sensor that can measure the temperature of an object without physically touching it (see the figure below). You can take the temperature reading of an object in seconds by merely pointing the handheld device at the object you want to measure and pulling a trigger.
A noncontact infrared thermometer.
An IR thermometer works by capturing the infrared energy naturally emitted from all objects warmer than absolute zero (0° Kelvin). Infrared energy is a part of the electromagnetic spectrum with a frequency below that of visible light, which means it is invisible to the human eye. Infrared wavelengths are between 0.7 microns and 1000 microns (millionths of a meter), although infrared thermometers typically measure radiation in the range 0.7–14 microns.
Because IR thermometers can measure the temperature of objects without touching them, they are ideal for measuring chip temperatures in a running system—especially the temperature of the CPU heatsink. By merely pointing the device at the top of the CPU and pulling the trigger, you can get a very accurate measurement in about 1 second. To enable more accuracy in positioning, many IR thermometers incorporate a laser pointer, which is used to aim the device. IR thermometers like the MiniTemp series are available from companies like Raytek.
Large Claw-Type Parts Grabber
One of the more useful tools in my toolbox is a large claw-type parts grabber, normally sold in stores that carry automotive tools. Having one of these around has saved many hours of frustration digging back into a system or behind a desk for a loose or dropped screw.
- PC Diagnostics, Testing, And Maintenance
- The POST
- BIOS POST Beep Codes, Checkpoint Codes, And Onscreen Messages
- Peripheral And Operating System Diagnostics
- Commercial Diagnostics Software And Free/User Supported Diagnostics
- The Boot Process
- The Hardware Boot Process: Operating System Independent
- DOS And Windows 9x/Me Boot Processes And Windows 2000/XP Startup
- Windows 7/Vista And Windows 8 Startup
- PC Maintenance Tools
- Hand Tools Continued
- Test Equipment: Electrical, Loopback Connectors, And Meters
- Test Equipment: Logic Probes, Outlet Testers, And Memory Module Testers
- Special Tools For The Enthusiast
- Preventative Maintenance
- Cleaning A System
- System Disassembly And Cleaning Procedures
- Passive Preventive Maintenance Procedures
- Passive Preventive Maintenance Procedures Continued
- Troubleshooting Tips And Techniques
- Troubleshooting: Replacing Parts And The Bootstrap Approach
- Problems During POST, Running Software, And Adapter Cards