Page 2:Inductors And Transformers
Page 4:Current Ripple And Cap Life Calculation
Page 5:Capacitors Manufacturer Tier List
Page 6:Resistors, Transistors And Diodes
Page 7:SMPS Vs. Linear Regulators
Page 8:SMPS Parts Description
Page 9:EMI/Transient Filtering Stage
Page 10:Bridge Rectifiers And APFC
Page 11:Main Switchers And Transformers
Page 12:Output Rectifiers And Filters
Page 13:Switching Controllers And Isolators
Page 14:Switching Regulator Topologies
Page 15:LLC Resonant Converter
Page 16:Digitally Controlled PSUs
Page 17:PSU Cooling
Page 18:Fan Operation And Bearing Types
Page 19:Other Bearing Types: SSO, Rifle, Hysint
Page 20:Measuring PSU's Fan RPM
Page 21:PSU Protections
Page 22:Monitoring Integrated Circuits
Page 23:ATX, EPS, And 80 PLUS Specifications
Page 24:PSU Resources
Current Ripple And Cap Life Calculation
Current Ripple Measurement On A Cap
Current ripple is one of the most important factors for measuring a cap's lifetime. Below, we will show you an example of how you can measure the current ripple on a bulk cap used in the APFC converter. We'll assume that the voltage ripple of a bulk cap is 5Vpp and that the ESR of this cap is 0.5Ω. To keep things simple, we will also make the assumption that ESR is kept constant (because ESR is frequency-dependent). We have to first convert the Vpp value to Vrms (Vrms = Vpp × 1/ √2= Vpp × 0.7071), so in our case we have:
(3) Vrms = 5V × 0.7071 = 3.5355 Vrms
All we have to do now is use Ohm's law (I = V/R) and find the rms ripple current through the cap since we already know its ESR.
(4) 3.5355 Vrms / 0.5Ω = 7.071A
The above ripple current value is pretty high and will apply huge stress to the bulk cap. By using the equation P = I2 × R, we find that 25W (7.0712 × 0.5Ω) of power has to be dissipated, so the bulk cap will get very hot after a while. In this case, we need a very powerful cooling fan (which means increased noise levels) to help the bulk cap keep its temperature at acceptable levels. The most effective solution to restrict ripple current is to reduce ripple voltage and select a bulk capacitor with the proper ESR value.
Electrolytic Cap Life Calculation
Having a way to easily calculate a cap's lifetime is very important. Here is the basic equation that we will use.
(5) L2 = L1 x (Vr/Vo) x 2x
In the above equation where: x = (Tm-(Ta+ΔT))/10
Ta represents the ambient temperature.
Tm is the max rated temperature of the capacitor.
ΔT is the temperature rise of the capacitor due to ripple current.
Vr is the maximum voltage rating of the capacitor.
Vo is the operating voltage of the capacitor.
L1 indicates the load life rating of the capacitor (provided by its manufacturer).
L2 is the calculated lifetime of the capacitor under the current operating conditions.
Now, let's say that we have an electrolytic bulk cap with a 2000-hour load life rating, 420V max voltage rating and 105 °C max temperature rating. If we use this capacitor inside an APFC converter where the DC bus is around 380VDC, assuming that its internal temperature will be kept at 50 °C while the temperature rise of the cap due to ripple current will be 10 °C, its estimated lifetime will be calculated by the following equation:
(6) L2 = 2000 x (420/380) x 24.5 ≈ 50,019 hours
If we assume that the ambient temperature is 40 °C, then we have the following:
(7) L2 = 2000 x (420/380) x 25.5 ≈ 100,037 hours
The above example clearly shows that 10 °C difference in the operating temperature of an electrolytic capacitor can double or cut in half its estimated lifetime. In addition, caps with 105 °C rating have four times the life compared with similar specification caps that have an 85 °C temperature rating.
- Inductors And Transformers
- Current Ripple And Cap Life Calculation
- Capacitors Manufacturer Tier List
- Resistors, Transistors And Diodes
- SMPS Vs. Linear Regulators
- SMPS Parts Description
- EMI/Transient Filtering Stage
- Bridge Rectifiers And APFC
- Main Switchers And Transformers
- Output Rectifiers And Filters
- Switching Controllers And Isolators
- Switching Regulator Topologies
- LLC Resonant Converter
- Digitally Controlled PSUs
- PSU Cooling
- Fan Operation And Bearing Types
- Other Bearing Types: SSO, Rifle, Hysint
- Measuring PSU's Fan RPM
- PSU Protections
- Monitoring Integrated Circuits
- ATX, EPS, And 80 PLUS Specifications
- PSU Resources