Raspberry Pi: Projects, Models, Prices, How to Get Started

With over 25 million units sold, the Raspberry Pi is not only one of the world’s most popular computers; it’s also one of the most important. Originally designed to help kids learn about technology, this inexpensive single-board system is the leading choice for makers, developers and hobbyists who want to do everything from building industrial robots to setting up retro arcade machines.

Credit: Tom's HardwareCredit: Tom's Hardware

Whether you’re eight or 80, if you love technology, the Raspberry Pi is made for you. And with models ranging in price from $5 to $55, anyone can afford to buy one. Here’s what you need to know to make the most of Raspberry Pi.

What You Do with a Raspberry Pi

The idea of sub-$50 computer sounds cool at first, but what exactly do you do with one? For most adults, even the highest-end Raspberry Pi isn’t powerful enough to serve as a primary PC. However, its small size, low-power usage and ability to connect to all kinds of electronic components via its 40-pin GPIO port make it ideal for tasks that a PC couldn’t perform.

Here are a few notable use cases.

  • Retro emulation machine: Due to the popularity of emulation environments, such as Retropie and Lakka, you can easily build a gaming console around your Raspberry Pi that can play old arcade games and titles on classic systems, like the Nintendo 64, Atari 2600 and Gameboy Advance. A number of third-party products, including the Pimoroni Picade, give you the parts to build your own Pi-powered arcade machine.
  • Kids’ learning computer: The Raspberry Pi was originally designed to get children interested in programming by giving them an inexpensive, infinitely configurable computer. The Raspberry Pi runs Scratch Desktop, the offline version of the kid-friendly Scratch programming language and has built-in Python support. It’s also powerful enough for kids to surf the web, play some games or write school papers.
  • Robot:  You can attach lights, motors and sensors to the Raspberry Pi, allowing it to power just about any kind of robot, from a robotic toy car to a mechanical arm that can pick up objects.
  • Sensor station: With the addition of add-ons like the Pi Sense Hat, you can monitor the temperature, humidity, light or even air quality of any location. This means that you can see the current weather or just build a fart detector.
  • Security camera: Using one of the many Raspberry Pi camera attachments or a USB-powered webcam, you can turn any Pi into a security system.
  • Magic mirror: You can build a system which displays your daily information, such as the weather and your calendar on a two-way mirror.

Choosing a Model and Getting Started with Raspberry Pi

If you don’t own a Pi, you should definitely get one; we recommend the Raspberry Pi 4 B, ideally with 4GB of RAM ($55), though you can settle for 2GB ($45) or 1GB ($35) configs if you want to save money (we explore other Pi models in the Noteworthy Raspberry Pi Models section). You probably won’t find one at your local big box retailers, but there are lots of places to buy a Raspberry Pi. You’ll also need:

  • A microSD card of at least 16GB
  • A compatible AC adapter. For the Pi 4, you need a USB Type-C charger with 5 volts and at least 3 amps. For earlier Pi models, a 2.5 amp, 5-volt charger with a micro USB interface fits the bill.

If you choose to do a Raspberry Pi headless install, which lets you control the Pi from another computer, those are the only things you’ll need.

However, if want to use the Pi as standalone, you will obviously need:

  • Keyboard / Mouse: The Pi has USB ports you can use to connect these. All models except the Raspberry Pi Zero (non-W) have Bluetooth you can use as well. We like using wireless keyboards that have built-in touchpads for our Pi, and the best of these is the Corsair K83.
  • Screen: While you can buy screens that attach to the Pi’s GPIO pins, the easiest thing is to run an HDMI cable from the Raspberry Pi to a monitor or TV. If you have the Pi 4, you’ll need a micro HDMI to HDMI cable, because that board has micro HDMI out. The Pi Zero / Zero W use mini HDMI out.

We’ve got a detailed article that explains how to set up your Raspberry PI for the first time. The whole process should take no more than 10 minutes. If you want to save money and desk space, we recommend trying a headless install of the Pi and logging into your Pi from your primary PC.

Noteworthy Raspberry Pi Models

There have been over a dozen different Raspberry Pi models released since the original, the Model B, launched in spring 2012. The company continues actively manufacturing all of them but the original Model A and B, because there are some companies that still use these legacy boards in their own products. However, there are really only a few models that the average shopper should consider getting right now.

  • Raspberry Pi 4 B with 1, 2 or 4GB of RAM ($35, $45 and $55): This is the latest model, and the 4GB edition is the top-of-the line. If you are planning to do physical computing (build a robot or gadget), 1GB should be fine, but 2-4GB is better if you plan to do web surfing and run programs on the Pi itself.

        Here’s where you can buy the Raspberry Pi 4 and 11 USB-C cables that work with the Pi 4.

  • Raspberry Pi Zero W ($5 to $10): This is the least powerful Pi, but it’s also super tiny (about the size of a USB Flash drive) and super cheap, so you can use it in a lot of different projects. It has both Wi-Fi and Bluetooth, so it can connect to your network and devices. There’s also a Raspberry Pi Zero that has no wireless connectivity, but we wouldn’t recommend that because it’s not much cheaper and in some places is the same price as the Zero W.
  • Raspberry Pi 3 B / 3 B+ ($35): These were the current-generation Raspberry Pis up until June 2019 and are a bit easier to find on sale and better supported (in terms of cases) than the Pi 4 at present. They also work flawlessly with game emulation software, like Retropie, which still don’t officially support Pi 4. While they are similar, the 3 B+ is 200 MHz faster than the 3 B and has better Wi-Fi. 

Further down the page, we have a complete table of all the Raspberry Pi models ever made.

Tutorials and Support

Perhaps the best thing about the Raspberry Pi is the community of enthusiasts that stand behind it. If you’re looking for help, you can find support on Tom’s Hardware’s own Raspberry Pi forum, the Raspberry Pi’s official forums or on Reddit’s /r/raspberry_pi.

There are tons of great tutorials on the Internet that help you customize the Pi and use it for your specific needs. We have published a few helpful how-tos here at Tom’s Hardware:

GPIO Pins

Perhaps the most important feature of the Raspberry Pi is its set of 40 GPIO (General Purpose Input / Output) pins. The Raspberry Pi GPIO pins allow you to connect to all kinds of electronics, including LED lights, sensors, motors and controllers.

Each of the 40 pins serves a different purpose; some are grounds, others provide 3.3 or 5 volts of juice and still others can send data to different kinds of devices.
To learn what each pin does, see our article and chart on the Raspberry Pi GPIO pinout.

Raspberry Pi HATs

While you can run wires to the GPIO pins or create your own circuit board to put on top of them, there are dozens of premade HATs (Hardware Attached on Top) you can buy. Some of the more interesting Raspberry Pi HATs are:

  • Raspberry Pi Sense HAT ($37): Used on the International Space Station, this first-party attachment has a series of sensors, including ones for pressure, humidity, temperature, along with an 8x8 LED light panel and a small joystick.
  • Picade X-HAT ($22): Provides inputs for an analog joystick, buttons, power and audio output. Just what you need to make an arcade machine.

Overclocking the Raspberry Pi

The Raspberry Pi was built for people who like to tinker so all current models are unlocked for overclocking, which is really easy to do. We’ve got an article that shows you how to overclock the Raspberry Pi 4 B all the way up to 2 GHz, but you’ll definitely want to add a fan like the Pimoroni Fan Shim or the 52Pi Ice Tower Cooler.

Brief History of Raspberry Pi

Eben UptonEben UptonThis world-conquering computer has some humble origins. In 2008, Raspberry Pi Founder Eben Upton started working on the project in an attempt to simply increase the number of young people applying to Cambridge University’s computer science program. Upton only planned to make 1,000 units in total, but when the Pi launched in 2012, there was so much interest from adult makers that the Raspberry Pi Foundation, the non-profit which develops the computer, had to mass produce it.

In 2014, the Foundation released the Raspberry Pi 1 A+ and B+, which were the first to have the 40-pin GPIO set all models still have today (earlier models had a 26-pin set). In 2015, the Raspberry Pi 2 launched, moving to a faster processor and 1GB of RAM (earlier models had up to 512MB). Also in 2015, the Pi Zero, a tiny model that’s the size of a USB stick and costs $5, hit the market. That same year a pair of rugged Raspberry Pis were installed at the International Space Station as part of a program that lets kids submit code to be run on them.

2016 saw the launch of the Raspberry Pi 3 B, which offered a faster processor with a 1.2 GHz clock speed. In 2017, the Pi Zero W, which adds Wi-Fi and Bluetooth connectivity to the Zero, appeared. And in 2019, the Raspberry Pi 4 B launched, upgrading to a quad-core, Cortex A-72-powered CPU, providing dual micro HDMI outputs and, for the first time, 2GB and 4GB RAM capacities.

Today, after more than 25 million Raspberry Pis have been sold, half of the units are being used by businesses that need them to perform industrial tasks or use them as part of products. However, children and schools are still a core constituency. According to the Pi Foundation, 250,000 kids a week take part in Raspberry Pi competitions, clubs or other programs.

All Raspberry Pi Models

Here’s a list of all major Raspberry Pi models released since 2012. Note that the Compute Modules have no ports, because they are designed to plug into custom PCBs and are usually used by businesses that build them into products.

Model
ReleaseCPURAMI/O PortsConnectivity
Raspberry Pi 4 BJun 2019
1.5-GHz, 4-core Broadcom BCM2711 (Cortex-A72)1 / 2 / 4GB2 x USB 3.0, 2 x USB 2.0, 2 x micro HDMI, 3.5mm audio802.11ac, Bluetooth 5, Gigabit Ethernet
Compute Model 3+ LiteJan 2019
1.2-GHz, 4-core Broadcom BCM2837B0 (Cortex-A53)1GBN/AN/A
Compute Model 3+Jan 2019
1.2-GHz, 4-core Broadcom BCM2837B0 (Cortex-A53)1GBN/AN/A
Raspberry Pi 3 A+Nov 2018
1.4-GHz, 4-core Broadcom BCM2837B0 (Cortex-A53)512MB1 x USB 2.0, HDMI, 3.5mm audio802.11ac, Bluetooth 4.2
Raspberry Pi 3 B+Mar 2018
1.4-GHz, 4-core Broadcom BCM2837B0 (Cortex-A53)1GB4 x USB 2.0, HDMI, 3.5mm audio802.11ac, Bluetooth 4.2, Ethernet
Raspberry Pi Zero WFeb 20171-GHz, 1-core Broadcom BCM2835 (ARM1176JZF-S)512MB1x micro USB, mini HDMI802.11n, Bluetooth 4.1
Compute Module 3 LiteJan 20171.2-GHz, 4-core Broadcom BCM2837 (Cortex-A53)1GBN/AN/A
Compute Module 3Jan 2017
1.2-GHz, 4-core Broadcom BCM2837 (Cortex-A53)1GBN/AN/A
Raspberry Pi 2 B (v 1.2)Oct 2016900-MHz, 4-core, Broadcom BCM2837 (Cortex-A53)1GB4x USB 2.0, 3.5mm audio, HDMI802.11n, Bluetooth 4.1, Ethernet
Raspberry Pi Zero (v 1.3)May 20161-GHz, 1-core Broadcom BCM2835 (ARM1176JZF-S)512MB1x micro USB, mini HDMIN/A
Raspberry Pi 3 BFeb 20161.2-GHz, 4-core, Broadcom BCM2837 (Cortex-A53)1GB4x USB 2.0, 3.5mm audio, HDMI802.11n, Bluetooth 4.1, Ethernet
Raspberry Pi Zero (v 1.2)Oct 20151-GHz, 1-core Broadcom BCM2835 (ARM1176JZF-S)512MB1x micro USB, mini HDMIN/A
Raspberry Pi 2 BFeb 2015900-MHz, 4-Core Broadcom BCM2836 (Cortex-A7)1GB4x USB, 3.5mm audio, HDMIEthernet
Raspberry Pi 1 A+Nov 2014700 Mhz, 1-core Broadcom BCM2835 (ARM1176JZF-S)512MB1x USB 2.0, 3.5mm audio, HDMI, composite videoN/A
Raspberry Pi 1 B+Jul 2014700 Mhz, 1-core Broadcom BCM2835 (ARM1176JZF-S)512MB4x USB 2.0, HDMI, composite videoEthernet
Compute Module 1Apr 2014
700 Mhz, 1-core Broadcom BCM2835 (ARM1176JZF-S)512MBN/AN/A
Raspberry Pi 1 AFeb 2013
700 Mhz, 1-core Broadcom BCM2835 (ARM1176JZF-S)256MB1x USB 2.0, HDMI, composite video, 3.5mm audioN/A
Raspberry Pi 1 BMar 2012
700 Mhz, 1-core Broadcom BCM2835 (ARM1176JZF-S)512MB2x USB 2.0, HDMI, 3.5mm audioEthernet

Image Credits: Tom's Hardware

2 comments
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  • Mr5oh
    Excellent article and list of projects. Thank you for also including a list of compatible USB C cables for the Pi 4 since it has "issues" with the USB C port.

    The Picade is a very fun project. The screen is excellent quality. The kit has been improved over the initial release some. The instructions have not though. The reviews mention needing to use videos and such and this is true. Not a big deal though, it's easy enough to figure out.

    I will say N64 emulation on the Pi through RetroPie is, well not a good experience. Generally it is going to take tweaks to make it work smoothly. Gameboy Advance can also struggle in places. NES, SNES, Sega, TurboGrfx, Atari, Gameboy, even actual Arcade stuff plays smoothly generally out of the box though on RetroPie. (I've been using Pi 3 B+ s for this, haven't tried a 4 yet)
  • Shirley Marquez
    The Corsair K83 may be the best of the wireless keyboard/trackpad combos, but at a list price of $99 (on sale for $79 at Amazon as I write this) it's far too expensive for most people to want to attach to a Pi. It does offer Bluetooth, so you can connect it to a Pi without using any of the USB ports.

    The Logitech K400 and K400 Plus (both versions are still available; the differences are keyboard layout and cosmetics) are a more logical (sic) pairing for the Pi, with their list price of $40 and frequent sales bringing the price under $20. (As I write this, Amazon has the K400 for $19 and the K400 Plus for $25.) The K400 uses a Unifying Receiver that plugs into a USB port; if you want to add a mouse you can pair many models of Logitech mice with the same receiver and thus use only one port. Use a USB 2 port on a Pi 4; there is no reason to waste a USB 3 port on a keyboard or any HID (human interface device).